Washington, Martha


Washington, Martha

▪ American first lady
née  Martha Dandridge , also called (1749–59)  Martha Custis 
born June 2, 1731, New Kent county, Virginia [U.S.]
died May 22, 1802, Mount Vernon, Virginia, U.S.

      American first lady (1789–97), the wife of George Washington (Washington, George), first president of the United States and commander in chief of the colonial armies during the American Revolutionary War (American Revolution). She set many of the standards and customs for the proper behaviour and treatment of the president's wife.

      Daughter of farmers John and Frances Jones Dandridge, Martha grew up among the wealthy plantation families of the Tidewater region of eastern Virginia, and she received an education traditional for young women of her class and time, one in which domestic skills and the arts far outweighed science and mathematics. In 1749, at age 18, she married Daniel Parke Custis, who was 20 years her senior and an heir to a neighbouring plantation. During their life together she bore four children, two of whom died in infancy. Her husband's death in July 1757 made her one of the wealthiest widows in the region.

 In the spring of the following year George Washington, then a young plantation owner and commander of the Virginia forces in the French and Indian War, began to court her, and their attachment grew increasingly deep. The couple married at Martha's home on January 6, 1759, and she and her children joined Washington at Mount Vernon, his plantation on the Potomac River. Washington later resented suggestions, which were undoubtedly true, that his wife's considerable property had eased his life in the early years of their marriage.

      At Mount Vernon Martha became known for her graciousness and hospitality. After George was chosen to command the American forces in the Revolutionary War, Martha spent winters with him at his various military quarters, where she lived simply and encouraged other officers' wives to help in the war effort by economizing and assisting their husbands. After the war, during which her only surviving son died, Martha virtually adopted two of her grandchildren, and they substituted in many ways for the children she and George never had.

      In 1789, shortly after her husband's inauguration as president of the United States, Martha joined him in New York City, then the national capital. Martha was widely hailed and often feted along the route, and she became known to Americans as “Lady Washington.” The couple's rented home on Broadway also served as the president's office, exposing her to her husband's callers and drawing her into political discussions more than would have been the case had home and office been separated. When Philadelphia became the seat of government in 1790 and the Washingtons moved to a house on High Street, Martha's hospitality became even more elaborate. The first lady took no stands on public issues, but she was criticized by some for entertaining on a scale too opulent for a republican government, and she was only too glad to retire to Mount Vernon after her husband completed his second term of office in 1797.

      Following George's death in 1799, Martha continued to reside at Mount Vernon. In 1800 Congress granted her a lifetime franking privilege, which it continued to grant to any president's widow who applied for it. After Martha died in 1802, there was considerable discussion in Congress about burying the Washingtons in the capital city that bore their name, but instead she was buried beside George in a family tomb at Mount Vernon.

      As wife of the first president of the United States, Martha Washington had no examples to follow. Although she was reluctant to assume a public role, her willingness to do so contributed to the eventual strength and influence of the position of first lady.

Betty Boyd Caroli

Additional Reading
A brief biography of Martha Washington is Patricia Brady, “Martha (Dandridge Custis) Washington,” in Lewis L. Gould (ed.), American First Ladies (1996), pp. 2–15. Books about George Washington that also treat Martha include Stephen Decatur, Jr., Private Affairs of George Washington (1933, reprinted 1969); Douglas Southall Freeman, George Washington, 7 vol. (1948–57; also published in an abridged one-volume version with the same title, ed. by Richard Harwek,1968; reissued as Washington, 1985); and James Thomas Flexner, George Washington, 4 vol. (1965–72), especially vols. 3 and 4.

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Universalium. 2010.

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