Waksman, Selman Abraham

Waksman, Selman Abraham

▪ American biochemist
born July 22, 1888, Priluka, Ukraine, Russian Empire [now Pryluky, Ukraine]
died Aug. 16, 1973, Hyannis, Mass., U.S.
 Ukrainian-born American biochemist who was one of the world's foremost authorities on soil microbiology. After the discovery of penicillin, he played a major role in initiating a calculated, systematic search for antibiotics among microbes. His consequent codiscovery of the antibiotic streptomycin, the first specific agent effective in the treatment of tuberculosis, brought him the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

      A naturalized U.S. citizen (1916), Waksman spent most of his career at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, where he served as professor of soil microbiology (1930–40), professor of microbiology and chairman of the department (1940–58), and director of the Rutgers Institute of Microbiology (1949–58). During his extensive study of the actinomycetes (actinomycete) (filamentous, bacteria-like microorganisms found in the soil), he extracted from them antibiotics (antibiotic) (a term he coined in 1941) valuable for their killing effect not only on gram-positive bacteria, against which penicillin is effective, but also on gram-negative bacteria, of which the tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) is one.

      In 1940 Waksman, along with Albert Schatz and Elizabeth Bugie, isolated actinomycin from soil bacteria but found it to be extremely toxic when given to test animals. Three years later they extracted the relatively nontoxic streptomycin from the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus and found that it exercised repressive influence on tuberculosis. In combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, streptomycin has become a major factor in controlling the disease. Waksman also isolated and developed several other antibiotics, including neomycin, that have been used in treating many infectious diseases of humans, domestic animals, and plants.

      Among Waksman's books are Principles of Soil Microbiology (1927), regarded as one of the most exhaustive works on the subject, and My Life with the Microbes (1954), an autobiography.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • WAKSMAN, SELMAN ABRAHAM — (1888–1973), U.S. microbiologist and Nobel Prize winner. Born in Priluki, Russia, he was taken to the United States as a child. From 1925, he taught at Rutgers University, heading its Institute of Microbiology from 1949. Although Waksman s… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Waksman,Selman Abraham — Waks·man (wăksʹmən), Selman Abraham. 1888 1973. Russian born American microbiologist. He won a 1952 Nobel Prize for discovering the antibiotic streptomycin. * * * …   Universalium

  • Waksman, Selman (Abraham) — (22 jul. 1888, Priluka, Ucrania, Imperio ruso–16 ago. 1973, Hyannis, Mass., EE.UU.). Bioquímico estadounidense nacido en Ucrania. Se nacionalizó en 1916 y pasó gran parte de su carrera en la Universidad de Rutgers. Después del descubrimiento de… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Waksman , Selman Abraham — (1888–1973) Russian–American biochemist Waksman, who was born at Priluki in Russia, emigrated to America in 1910; he graduated from Rutgers University in 1915 and obtained his American citizenship the following year. He studied for his doctorate… …   Scientists

  • Waksman, Selman (Abraham) — born July 22, 1888, Priluka, Ukraine, Russian Empire died Aug. 16, 1973, Hyannis, Mass., U.S. Ukrainian born U.S. biochemist. He became a U.S. citizen in 1916 and spent most of his career at Rutgers University. After the discovery of penicillin,… …   Universalium

  • Waksman, Selman Abraham — (1888–1973)    US microbiologist and Nobel laureate, 1952. Waksman was taken as a child from Russia to the United States. In 1939 he discovered a bacteria killing agent in a micro organism found in soil. He coined the term ‘antibiotic’ (against… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Waksman, Selman Abraham — ► (18881973) Microbiólogo estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1952 por sus trabajos sobre los antibióticos y el descubrimiento de la estreptomicina …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Selman Abraham Waksman — Selman Waksman (1953) Nacimiento …   Wikipedia Español

  • Selman Abraham Waksman — Selman Waksman (1953) Selman Abraham Waksman (ukrainisch Зельман Абрахам Ваксман, wiss. Transliteration Zel man Abracham Vaksman; * 8. Julijul./ 20. Juli 1888 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Selman Abraham Waksman — Selman Waksman Selman Waksman (1953) Salman Abraham Waksman, microbiologiste américain d origine russe ashkénaze, est né à Priluka, près de Kiev, le 22 juin 1888. Il est décédé le 16 août 1973. Son père s appelait Jacob Waksman et sa mère, Fradia …   Wikipédia en Français


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