▪ ancient fortress, Turkeyalso spelled Topra Kaleh,ancient Urartian fortress located near modern Van in southeastern Turkey. The walls of Toprakkale, erected in the 8th century BC, were of cyclopean masonry and sloped slightly inward, perhaps as a defense against earthquakes. Excavations at the site, carried out primarily by British and German teams, have revealed the high level of artistic achievement of ancient Urartu, especially in bronze but also in gold, silver, and ivory. Bronze objects of particular importance included a candelabrum about 53.5 inches (136 cm) high, decorated shields, and building reliefs that have provided valuable information about Urartian domestic architecture. In addition, excavations have uncovered a basalt floor inlaid with limestone and marble, parts of a decorated marble frieze, and brilliantly polished red pottery vessels.
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