Tonkawa


Tonkawa

people
      North American Indian tribe of what is now south-central Texas. Their language is considered by some to belong to the Coahuiltecan family and by others to be a distinct linguistic stock in the Macro-Algonquian phylum. Satellite groups of the Tonkawa included the Ervipiame, Mayeye, and Yojuane.

      Before colonization, the Tonkawa were nomadic bison hunters; their mobile villages of tepees were dispersed across the southern Plains landscape. They were notable warriors, whose offensive weapons included bows, arrows, and spears. In battle they wore leather jackets and caps decorated with horns and brilliant plumage. At one time or another the Tonkawa fought most of their neighbours, from the Apache to the Caddo.

      After 1770, when their relations with the Spanish became friendly, the Tonkawa obtained firearms in exchange for tallow, deerskins, and buffalo robes. For a time they also had friendly relations with the Texans. In 1858 they were employed as scouts against the Comanche and Wichita. In 1859 the Tonkawa were removed from the Brazos River reservation to Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma). The Tonkawa population of perhaps 1,500 at the time of their first European contact (1691) decreased as a result of warfare and disease; Tonkawa descendants numbered more than 300 in the early 21st century.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tonkawa — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para la lengua, véase idioma tonkawa. Los tonkawa son una tribu india de grupo lingüístico desconocido (englobado a menudo en el grupo hoka sioux) pero emparentado con los caddo. Su nombre procede del waco tonkaweya… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tonkawa — Extinction début du XXe siècle Parlée aux  États Unis Région Texas …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tonkawa — Tonkawa, OK U.S. city in Oklahoma Population (2000): 3299 Housing Units (2000): 1417 Land area (2000): 5.579458 sq. miles (14.450729 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.021821 sq. miles (0.056515 sq. km) Total area (2000): 5.601279 sq. miles (14.507244… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Tonkawa, OK — U.S. city in Oklahoma Population (2000): 3299 Housing Units (2000): 1417 Land area (2000): 5.579458 sq. miles (14.450729 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.021821 sq. miles (0.056515 sq. km) Total area (2000): 5.601279 sq. miles (14.507244 sq. km) FIPS …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Tonkawa — Die Titska Watitch oder Tickanwatic (‘Echte, Wirkliche Menschen’), besser bekannt als Tonkawa (sprich: ‘TOHNK ayh wah’, abgel. aus dem Waco tonk a weya ‘Jene, die zusammenbleiben’), waren ein Indianer Stamm der ursprünglich im heutigen östlichen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tónkawa — Para la lengua, véase idioma tónkawa. Los tónkawa son una tribu india de grupo lingüístico desconocido pero emparentado con los caddo. Su nombre procede del waco tonkaweya (“ellos están aquí”). Se llamaban Titskan watich “hombres nativos”. Se… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tonkawa — The Tonkawa are a people native to central Texas, speaking the Tonkawa language.The Tonkawa belong to the Tonkawan linguistic family, that was once composed of a number of small sub tribes that lived in a region that extended west from south… …   Wikipedia

  • tonkawa — ˈtäŋkəwə noun (plural tonkawa or tonkawas) Usage: usually capitalized 1. a. : an Indian people of central Texas b. : a member of such people 2 …   Useful english dictionary

  • Tonkawa — Tọnkawa,   Stamm und Sprachfamilie der Prärie und Plains Indianer. Die Tonkawa wurden außer einer kleinen Gruppe mit Reservationsland in Nordoklahoma (etwa 200) in Zentraltexas völlig mexikanisiert …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Tonkawa — Original name in latin Tonkawa Name in other language State code US Continent/City America/Chicago longitude 36.67837 latitude 97.31004 altitude 306 Population 3216 Date 2011 05 14 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database


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