Tokugawa Yoshinobu


Tokugawa Yoshinobu

▪ shogun of Japan
original name  Tokugawa Keiki  
born Oct. 28, 1837, Edo, Japan
died Jan. 22, 1913, Tokyo
 the last Tokugawa shogun of Japan, who helped make the Meiji Restoration (1868)—the overthrow of the shogunate and restoration of power to the emperor—a relatively peaceful transition.

      Born into the ruling Tokugawa family, Keiki was the son of Tokugawa Nariaki, who was the head of the feudal fief of Mito. The Hitotsubashi family, a Tokugawa branch that, like the Mito extension, was eligible to succeed to the shogunate, had no male heirs during this period. Thus, when Keiki, seventh son of Nariaki, was adopted into the Hitotsubashi family, he greatly increased his chance to succeed to the shogunate. When the shogun Tokugawa Iesada died without heir in 1858, Nariaki attempted to push his son's candidacy as a way of implementing his own reformist policies. A more moderate group prevailed, however, and an infant boy (Tokugawa Iemochi) was chosen as the new shogun. Keiki and his father, along with other radicals, were forced into domiciliary confinement.

      The government's policy of granting trading concessions to the West, however, soon aroused strong opposition and brought about renewed demands that the shogun yield some of his power to the emperor. In 1862 the government was finally forced to accept a compromise in which Keiki was appointed guardian to the new shogun.

      Keiki immediately moved to introduce reforms to bring the Imperial court and the shogun into closer harmony and allow the great lords to have some voice in the decision-making processes. Under pressure he agreed to expel all foreigners from the country on June 25, 1863. When that day passed with no action, however, criticism of the shogunate again increased.

      In 1864 the radical rulers of the fief of Chōshū openly defied the central government, and Keiki successfully mounted a punitive expedition. After the forces of the shogunate withdrew, however, in 1865, the radicals again assumed power in Chōshū. A second expedition against the fief the following year was defeated, because many of the great lords, alienated by Keiki's attempts to reassert his authority at their expense, refused to come to his aid. Although the sudden death of the shogun, Iemochi, allowed Keiki to withdraw his troops and save face, the weakness of the shogunal forces was obvious.

      Elevated to shogun in 1866, as Tokugawa Yoshinobu, he made a desperate effort to obtain French aid. As pressure increased he agreed to surrender his powers in 1867, expecting to be the first among equals in any new power structure that emerged. Satsuma and Chōshū leaders, however, decided to move first; on Jan. 3, 1868, a group of radical samurai seized the palace in Kyōto and declared an Imperial restoration. Although Yoshinobu agreed to accept the results of the coup, his advisers refused, and a short civil war ensued. When the Imperial forces marched on the shogunal capital at Edo (now Tokyo), Yoshinobu finally forced his troops to surrender. Yoshinobu himself was allowed to retire to Mito. Later pardoned, he was granted the rank of prince in 1902.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — Yoshinobu Tokugawa Yoshinobu Tokugawa en uniforme militaire français Yoshinobu Tokugawa (徳川 慶喜, Tokugawa Yoshinobu? …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — als Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu als Kazuko um 1905 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • TOKUGAWA YOSHINOBU — (1837 1913) Homme d’État japonais et dernier des sh 拏gun . Issu de la branche cadette de Mito des Tokugawa, Tokugawa Yoshinobu fut adopté par celle de Hitotsubashi. Lorsque le sh 拏gun Iesada mourut sans fils, en 1858, il fut proposé comme… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — Infobox Officeholder | name= Tokugawa Yoshinobu nationality=Japanese small caption=Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c.1867 order=15th Edo Shogun term start=1867 term end=1868 predecessor=Tokugawa Iemochi successor=none (position… …   Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — Este artículo está titulado de acuerdo a la onomástica japonesa, en que el apellido precede al nombre. Tokugawa Yoshinobu 徳川 慶喜 Shōgun Tokugawa 1867 – 1868 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu-ke — The nihongo|Tokugawa Yoshinobu House|徳川慶喜家|Tokugawa Yoshinobu ke was founded in 1902 when Emperor Meiji permitted Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last Shōgun of Japan, to found a house with the highest rank of nobility, kōshaku (Prince). The title was… …   Wikipedia

  • Yoshinobu Tokugawa — Tokugawa Yoshinobu 徳川 慶喜 Tokugawa Yoshinobu en Shogun (1867) Nom de naissance Tokugawa Sh …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Yoshinobu Tokugawa — Tokugawa Yoshinobu Tokugawa Yoshinobu (jap. 徳川 慶喜; * 28. Oktober 1837; † 22. November 1913) war der letzte japanische Shōgun (1866–67). Er dankte 1867 unter dem Druck der Reformer ab, die anstelle des Shogunats (Bakufu) eine nominelle …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa Keiki — Tokugawa Yoshinobu Tokugawa Yoshinobu (jap. 徳川 慶喜; * 28. Oktober 1837; † 22. November 1913) war der letzte japanische Shōgun (1866–67). Er dankte 1867 unter dem Druck der Reformer ab, die anstelle des Shogunats (Bakufu) eine nominelle …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa Yoshitomo — (徳川慶朝; born February 1, 1950) is the present (4th generation) head of the Tokugawa Yoshinobu ke , the branch of the Tokugawa line started by the last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu.BiographyBorn in Sena, in Shizuoka Prefecture, he went to school in… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.