Tokugawa Nariaki


Tokugawa Nariaki

▪ Japanese feudal lord

born April 4, 1800, Edo, Japan
died Sept. 29, 1860, Mito, Hitachi Province

      Japanese advocate of reform measures designed to place more power in the hands of the emperor and the great lords and to keep foreigners out of Japan. He played a prominent role in the Meiji Restoration (1868), which overthrew the Tokugawa family, whose members for more than 250 years had ruled Japan through the office of shogun.

      A member of the Tokugawa family himself, Nariaki in 1829 succeeded his brother as head of Mito han (fief), one of the most powerful of the many feudal fiefs into which Japan was then divided. Although controlled by the Tokugawa house, Mito had become the centre of a movement claiming that the true Japanese way was the way of the emperor, whose power the shogun had usurped. An articulate adherent of the movement, Nariaki urged the central government to grant more power to the feudal lords, to encourage national consolidation, and to adopt Western military and industrial techniques to strengthen national defenses. Western techniques, however, were to be applied without allowing Westerners to enter the country, for Nariaki believed that increased trade and contact with the West violated sacred Japanese tradition.

      Because of Nariaki's prestige, the reform program he instituted in his own domain became a model for the rest of the country. He reorganized the fief's finances and administration, carried out extensive public works, began an iron and shipbuilding industry, and introduced Western military techniques. When he began to cast his own cannon in direct violation of the Shogun's internal security provisions, however, he was forced to abdicate as head of Mito han in favour of his son Keiki. He continued to exercise influence in Mito, however, and in 1848 he was allowed to resume his post.

      Five years later Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the U.S. Navy was sent to Japan in command of a fleet of gunships to force the country to end its two centuries of isolation. In an attempt to consolidate national opinion, the government called on Nariaki for advice; he demanded that no concessions be made. When a treaty was signed with Perry the following year, Nariaki became the head of an influential group demanding reform of the shogunate.

      Although Nariaki's son Keiki was considered the most eligible candidate to succeed the Shogun (Tokugawa Iesada) when he died in 1858, another contender was chosen, and the government then concluded the treaty that established trade between the United States and Japan. Nariaki attacked this treaty, concluded without the Emperor's consent, as a betrayal of Japanese tradition. This attack was viewed as insubordination by the Shogun, and Nariaki and his party were ordered into retirement. The disintegration of Tokugawa power after Nariaki's death eventually brought a more reform-minded group to power within the shogunate. Keiki, named shogun in 1866 as Tokugawa Yoshinobu, presided over the subsequent demise of the shogunate.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tokugawa Nariaki — (jap. 徳川 斉昭, auch bekannt als Rekkō; * 4. April 1800; † 29. September 1860) war der 9. Daimyō von Mito (nun Präfektur Ibaraki). Er war beteiligt am aufkommenden Nationalgefühl der Japaner, an der Meiji Restauration und Förderer der …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa Nariaki — In this Japanese name, the family name is Tokugawa . Tokugawa Nariaki, 9th Lord of Mito Tokugawa Nariaki (徳川 斉昭 , April 4, 1800 – September 29, 1860) was a prominent Japanese daimyo who ruled the Mito domain (now Ibaraki prefecture) and… …   Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — als Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu als Kazuko um 1905 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — ▪ shogun of Japan original name  Tokugawa Keiki   born Oct. 28, 1837, Edo, Japan died Jan. 22, 1913, Tokyo  the last Tokugawa shogun of Japan, who helped make the Meiji Restoration (1868) the overthrow of the shogunate and restoration of power to …   Universalium

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — Infobox Officeholder | name= Tokugawa Yoshinobu nationality=Japanese small caption=Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c.1867 order=15th Edo Shogun term start=1867 term end=1868 predecessor=Tokugawa Iemochi successor=none (position… …   Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa shogunate — Infobox Former Country native name = conventional long name = Edo Bakufu common name = Tokugawa Bakufu continent = Asia region = Japan |year start = 1603 |year end = 1868 symbol type = Mon symbol type article = Mon of the Tokugawa Shogunate |p1 …   Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — Este artículo está titulado de acuerdo a la onomástica japonesa, en que el apellido precede al nombre. Tokugawa Yoshinobu 徳川 慶喜 Shōgun Tokugawa 1867 – 1868 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tokugawa Akitake — [ thumb|Tokugawa Akitake (center) in Belgium.] Tokugawa Akitake (Jp: 徳川昭武 1853 1910) was a younger brother of the Japanese Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu. He was born in Komagome, Tokyo, as the 18th son of Tokugawa Nariaki. Initially lord of Aizu, he… …   Wikipedia

  • Tokugawa, Mitsukuni — (1628 1700)    Second daimyo of the feudal domain of Mito, and a grandson of Tokugawa, Ieyasu. He is otherwise known as Mito komon, Seizan or Giko. He encouraged the study of Shushi gaku Neo Confucianism with a view to synthesising Japanese and… …   A Popular Dictionary of Shinto

  • Tokugawa Yoshinobu — Yoshinobu Tokugawa Yoshinobu Tokugawa en uniforme militaire français Yoshinobu Tokugawa (徳川 慶喜, Tokugawa Yoshinobu? …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.