Tilly, Johann Tserclaes, Graf von

Tilly, Johann Tserclaes, Graf von

▪ Bavarian general
born February 1559, Tilly, Brabant, Spanish Netherlands
died April 30, 1632, Ingolstadt, Bavaria
 outstanding general who was the principal commander of the Catholic League in Germany during the Thirty Years' War.

      Educated by Jesuits, Tilly gained military experience in the Spanish Army of Flanders fighting the Dutch. In 1594 he joined the army of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II in the campaign against the Turks in Hungary.

      Appointed by Duke (later Elector) Maximilian I of Bavaria to reorganize the Bavarian army in 1610, Tilly created such an efficient army that it later became the backbone and spearhead of the Catholic League. At the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618), he became commander in chief of the field forces for the Catholic League. In 1620 he conducted the first campaign of the war and, after a series of successes, marched on Prague to rout the troops fighting for Frederick V of the Upper Palatinate (Frederick V), the “Winter King” of Bohemia, at the Battle of White Mountain (White Mountain, Battle of) (Nov. 8, 1620). Over the next three years Tilly conquered the Upper Palatinate and the Rhenish Palatinate, defeated in battle several other armies raised by Frederick's supporters, and advanced into northwestern Germany.

      In the war against Denmark (1625–29), Tilly, with the army of the Catholic League, crushed the Danes under the personal command of King Christian IV at the Battle of Lutter (Aug. 27, 1626). Together with Albrecht von Wallenstein (Wallenstein, Albrecht Wenzel Eusebius von, Herzog von Friedland, Herzog von Mecklenburg, Fürst Von Sagen), commander of Emperor Ferdinand II's army, he occupied the Jutland peninsula and forced Christian to make an ignominious peace at Lübeck (July 7, 1629). The following year Ferdinand dismissed Wallenstein, and Tilly assumed command of the imperial as well as the league forces.

      In July 1630 Gustav II Adolf of Sweden invaded Germany, and Tilly became responsible for defeating him and his allies. Tilly first laid siege to the Protestant city of Magdeburg, which had rashly declared for Gustav, and on May 20, 1631, fearing the arrival of a Swedish relief army, Tilly's troops stormed the city and conducted a thorough sack. Of more than 30,000 people in Magdeburg, at least three-quarters perished, and most of their houses burned to the ground.

      This brutality led several German Protestant princes to side with the Swedes, but John George of Saxony (John George), his territories separating the armies of Tilly and Gustav, remained neutral. After fruitless negotiations, Tilly invaded Saxony, provoking John George to join forces with Gustav. Together they routed Tilly—previously undefeated—at the Battle of Breitenfeld (Breitenfeld, Battle of) (Sept. 17, 1631), thus laying western Germany open to occupation. Gustav advanced to the Rhine while Tilly retreated to Bavaria.

      Early in 1632, Maximilian rashly ordered a preemptive strike, and Tilly moved northward to attack Gustav. The superior strength of Gustav's forces soon forced Tilly to retire, and on April 15 he tried unsuccessfully to prevent the Swedes from crossing into Bavaria at Rain on the Lech River. Tilly received a wound from which he died two weeks later. He lies buried in a spectacular chapel at Altötting in Bavaria.

N. Geoffrey Parker
 

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Johann Tserclaes Graf von Tilly — Johann t Serclaes von Tilly, Stich von Pieter de Jode d. Ä. Bronzestandbild in der Feldherrnhalle zu München Johann t’Serclaes Graf von Tilly (* …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johann t’Serclaes von Tilly — Johann t Serclaes von Tilly, Stich von Pieter de Jode d. Ä. nach Anthonis van Dyck …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johann Tserclaes von Tilly — Johann t Serclaes von Tilly, Stich von Pieter de Jode d. Ä. Bronzestandbild in der Feldherrnhalle zu München Johann t’Serclaes Graf von Tilly (* …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johann t'Serclaes Graf von Tilly — Johann t Serclaes von Tilly, Stich von Pieter de Jode d. Ä. Bronzestandbild in der Feldherrnhalle zu München Johann t’Serclaes Graf von Tilly (* …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johann t'Serclaes von Tilly — Johann t Serclaes von Tilly, Stich von Pieter de Jode d. Ä. Bronzestandbild in der Feldherrnhalle zu München Johann t’Serclaes Graf von Tilly (* …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly — Count Tilly on a portrait by van Dyck. Nickname the Monk in Armor …   Wikipedia

  • Mansfeld, Ernst, Graf von — ▪ German general in full  Peter Ernst, count von Mansfeld  born 1580, Luxembourg died Nov. 29, 1626, Rakovica, near Sarajevo, Bosnia       Roman Catholic mercenary who fought for the Protestant cause during the Thirty Years War (1618–48); he was… …   Universalium

  • Johann Tserklaes Tilly — Johann t Serclaes von Tilly, Stich von Pieter de Jode d. Ä. Bronzestandbild in der Feldherrnhalle zu München Johann t’Serclaes Graf von Tilly (* …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tilly — Tịlly,   Johann Tserclaes Graf von (seit 1623), kaiserlicher Feldherr, * Schloss Tilly (bei Nivelles) Februar 1559, ✝ Ingolstadt 30. 4. 1632; zunächst im spanischen, dann im kaiserlichen Heerdienst, erwarb sich im Krieg gegen die Türken… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Tilly — aus einer verkürzten Form von Tilling entstandener Familienname. Bekannter Namensträger: Johann Tserclaes Graf von Tilly, kaiserlicher Feldherr im Dreißigjährigen Krieg (16./17.Jh.) …   Wörterbuch der deutschen familiennamen


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