Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson


Swan, Sir Joseph Wilson

▪ English physicist and chemist

born Oct. 31, 1828, Sunderland, Durham, Eng.
died May 27, 1914, Warlingham, Surrey
 English physicist and chemist who produced an early electric light bulb and invented the dry photographic plate, an important improvement in photography and a step in the development of modern photographic film.

      After serving his apprenticeship with a druggist in his native town, Swan became first assistant and later partner in a firm of manufacturing chemists in Newcastle. Working with wet photographic plates, he noticed that heat increased the sensitivity of the silver bromide emulsion. By 1871 he had devised a method of drying the wet plates, initiating the age of convenience in photography. Eight years later he patented bromide paper, the paper commonly used in modern photographic prints.

      Some years earlier, in 1860, Swan developed a primitive electric light, one that utilized a filament of carbonized paper in an evacuated glass bulb. Lack of a good vacuum and an adequate electric source, however, resulted in a short lifetime for the bulb and inefficient light. His design was substantially the one used by Thomas A. Edison nearly 20 years later. In 1880, after the improvement of vacuum techniques, both Swan and Edison produced a practical light bulb. Three years later, while searching for a better carbon filament for his light bulb, Swan patented a process for squeezing nitrocellulose through holes to form fibres. In 1885 he exhibited his equipment and some articles made from the artificial fibres. The textile industry has utilized his process. Swan was knighted in 1904.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Joseph - получить на Академике рабочий купон на скидку Sneakerhead или выгодно joseph купить с бесплатной доставкой на распродаже в Sneakerhead

  • Swan, Sir Joseph (Wilson) — (31 oct. 1828, Sunderland, Durham, Inglaterra–27 may. 1914, Warlingham, Surrey). Físico y químico inglés. En 1871 inventó la placa fotográfica seca, una mejora importante en fotografía. Ya había producido una bombilla eléctrica primitiva (1860),… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Swan, Sir Joseph (Wilson) — born Oct. 31, 1828, Sunderland, Durham, Eng. died May 27, 1914, Warlingham, Surrey English physicist and chemist. By 1871 he had invented the dry photographic plate, an important improvement in photography. He had already produced an early… …   Universalium

  • Joseph Wilson Swan — Joseph Wilson Swan. Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (31 de octubre de 1828 27 de mayo de 1914) fue un físico y químico inglés, famoso por la invención de la lámpara incandescente. Contenido …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joseph Wilson Swan — Joseph Swan Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (31 octobre 1828 Sunderland, Royaume Uni 27 mai 1914 à Warlingham, Comté de Surrey, Royaume Uni) est un électricien et un chimiste britannique. Il fut le premier à inventer l ampoule à incandescence classique.… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wilson — Wilson, Angus Wilson, Charles Thompson Rees Wilson, Colin Wilson, Colin St. John Wilson, Henry Maitland Wilson, James Harold Wilson, John Wilson, Kenneth …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Swan — /swon/, n. Sir Joseph Wilson, 1828 1914, British chemist, electrical engineer, and inventor. * * * I Long necked, heavy bodied, big footed waterfowl (genus Cygnus, family Anatidae). Among waterfowl, swans are the largest and fastest, both… …   Universalium

  • Joseph — /joh zeuhf, seuhf/, n. 1. Jacob s eleventh son, the first of Jacob and his second wife, Rachel: sold into slavery by his brothers. Gen. 30:22 24; 37. 2. the husband of Mary who was the mother of Jesus. Matt. 1:16 25. 3. (Hinmaton yalaktit), c1840 …   Universalium

  • sir — /serr/, n. 1. a respectful or formal term of address used to a man: No, sir. 2. (cap.) the distinctive title of a knight or baronet: Sir Walter Scott. 3. (cap.) a title of respect for some notable personage of ancient times: Sir Pandarus of Troy …   Universalium

  • Joseph — (as used in expressions) Abbot, Sir John (Joseph Caldwell) Addison, Joseph Akiba ben Joseph Jacques Joseph Ahearn Arrow, Kenneth J(oseph) Abba Mari ben Moses ben Joseph Banks, Sir Joseph Belloc, (Joseph Pierre) Hilaire Berrigan, Daniel (Joseph) y …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Wilson — /wil seuhn/, n. 1. Sir Angus (Frank Johnstone) /jon steuhn, seuhn/, 1913 91, English writer. 2. August, born 1945, U.S. playwright. 3. Charles Thomson Rees /tom seuhn rees/, 1869 1959, Scottish physicist: Nobel prize 1927. 4. Edmund, 1895 1972, U …   Universalium