sound production


sound production

animal
      in animals, the initiation of sound as a means of information transmission. Sounds are termed vocal when produced in the respiratory system and mechanical when produced by mutual contact of body parts or by contact with some element in the environment. Vocal sounds are restricted to vertebrate animals; nonvocal sounds are produced by many invertebrates and by some members of all vertebrate classes.

      Many animals possess special structures for producing mechanical sounds. Crickets and grasshoppers produce sound by rubbing together rasplike structures on their wings. Cicadas (cicada), which emit the loudest sounds known from insects, do so by means of a pair of membranous organs (timbal organs) at the base of the abdomen. A special muscle deadens the hearing apparatus of the insect when it is calling.

      In the vertebrates many means of mechanical sound production exist. A number of birds, of widely divergent families, have feathers modified for producing sound in flight. The specially modified tail tip of the rattlesnake is another familiar example. Many animals, especially among the mammals, produce sounds with parts of the body that are specialized for other purposes; stamping or drumming on the ground with the feet is seen in many species, and slapping the water with the tail is a common means employed by aquatic mammals to warn others of danger.

      Many fishes (fish) produce sounds by moving bones or teeth against each other, sometimes with the swim bladder acting as a resonating cavity. Among amphibians (amphibian), the sirens (order Trachystomata), salamanders (Caudata), and caecilians (Gymnophiona) are silent or nearly so, but the frogs (Anura) are highly vocal, producing species-specific sounds by moving air between the mouth and lungs past vocal chords in the windpipe (trachea). Among reptiles (reptile), crocodilians and some turtles produce low-pitched sounds; lizards (except geckos) and snakes are usually silent, except for hissing sounds uttered under stress. Vocal sounds of birds are produced by the syrinx, a specialized region at the lower (posterior) end of the trachea. Mammalian vocalizations, on the other hand, originate in the larynx, a modification of the upper (anterior) end of the trachea. Members of both groups may use the mouth for resonating or filtering sound or may possess special outpouchings of the trachea or esophagus that serve as resonating cavities.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • sound production — see sonic muscles and eructation …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • Anime Sound Production — nihongo|Anime Sound Production|株式会社アニメ・サウンド・プロダクション|Kabushiki gaisha Anime Saundo Purodakushon is a sound effects company working in the television, movie, radio, video, CD, cassette and game animation industry in Japan.Company historyThe company …   Wikipedia

  • Sound recording and reproduction — Sound recorder redirects here. For the audio recording program computer software, see Sound Recorder (Windows). Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice,… …   Wikipedia

  • Sound film — …   Wikipedia

  • Sound design — ambox type = content text = This {1|article or section} may be inaccurate or in favor of certain viewpoints. Please [SERVERlocalurl:PAGENAME|action=edit improve the article] by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on… …   Wikipedia

  • Sound reinforcement system — A sound reinforcement system is an arrangement of microphones, electronic signal processors, amplifiers, and loudspeakers that makes live or pre recorded sounds usually music or speech louder, or that distributes the sound to a larger or more… …   Wikipedia

  • sound reception — Introduction       response of an organism s aural mechanism, the ear, to a specific form of energy change, or sound waves. Sound waves can be transmitted through gases, liquids, or solids, but the hearing function of each species is particularly …   Universalium

  • Sound-on-film — Edge of a 35mm film print showing the soundtracks. The outermost strip (left of picture) contains the SDDS track as an image of a digital signal; the next contains the perforations used to drive the film through the projector, with the Dolby… …   Wikipedia

  • Sound Designer — F/A/V A film sound specialist responsible for the development and augmentation of all soundtrack material, or a significant portion thereof, and is ultimately in charge of the entire sound production. Occasionally, it is used to refer to a person …   Audio and video glossary

  • Sound-system — Au sens strict, le terme sound system (en français « système de sonorisation ») désigne le matériel de sonorisation utilisé lors d une fête. Par extension, il désigne également le groupe d organisateurs de soirées mettant ce matériel à… …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.