Singhasāri


Singhasāri

▪ historical kingdom, Indonesia
      kingdom based in eastern Java that emerged in the first half of the 13th century after the decline of the kingdom of Kaḍiri. Singhasāri's first king, Ken Angrok (or Ken Arok), defeated the king of Kaḍiri, Kertajaya, in 1222. The last king of Singhasāri, Kertanagara (q.v.; 1268–92), was able to unite eastern Java temporarily. Toward the end of Kertanagara's reign, Kublai Khan, the great khan of the Mongols and the emperor of China, sent an envoy to Singhasāri demanding homage, but Kertanagara refused and even insulted Kublai's ambassador. Soon thereafter the ruler of Kaḍiri, Jayakatwang, rebelled against Singhasāri and killed Kertanagara, thus ending the period of Singhasāri dominion. The temples built during Singhasāri's rule are considered great examples of Hindu-Javanese arts; they mark the gradual transformation of Hindu architecture into Javanese forms and also reflect the increasing syncretism of Hinduism and Buddhism, which culminated in Kertanagara's Śiva-Buddha cult.

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Universalium. 2010.

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