Semyonov, Nikolay Nikolayevich

Semyonov, Nikolay Nikolayevich

▪ Russian chemist
Semyonov also spelled  Semënov  
born April 15 [April 3, Old Style], 1896, Saratov, Russia
died Sept. 25, 1986, Moscow, U.S.S.R.

      Soviet physical chemist who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Sir Cyril Hinshelwood (Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman) for research in chemical kinetics. He was the second Soviet citizen (after the émigré writer Ivan Bunin) to receive a Nobel Prize.

      Semyonov was educated in St. Petersburg, graduating from the city's university in 1917, the year of the Russian Revolution, and taught for a time at the University of Tomsk in western Siberia. Associated with the Leningrad A.F. Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute from 1920 to 1931, he became a professor at the Leningrad (St. Petersburg) Polytechnic Institute in 1928. He was director of the Institute of Chemical Physics at the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R. after 1931 and became a professor at Moscow State University in 1944.

      Like Hinshelwood, Semyonov conducted research on the mechanism of chemical chain reactions and their significance in relation to explosions. Semyonov was the first to show that chain reactions are the norm in chemical transformations of matter. He published the influential book O nekotorykh problemakh khimicheskoy kinetiki i reaktsionnoy sposobnosti (1954; Some Problems in Chemical Kinetics and Reactivity).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Semyonov, Nikolay (Nikolayevich) — Semyonov also spelled Semë nov born April 15, 1896, Saratov, Russia died Sept. 25, 1986, Moscow, U.S.S.R. Russian physical chemist. His specialty was the mechanisms of chain and branched chain chemical reactions, which he showed were the norm in… …   Universalium

  • Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov — Nikolaï Semionov Nikolaï Nikolaïevitch Semionov (en russe Николай Николаевич Семёнов) né le 15 avril (3 avril selon l ancien calendrier julien) 1896 et mort le 25 septembre 1986, est l un des fondateurs de la chimie physique, créateur de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Nikolay Semyonov — Semyonov (right) and Kapitsa, portrait by Boris Kustodiev, 1921. Born …   Wikipedia

  • Nikolayevich — (as used in expressions) Nikolay Nikolayevich Aleksandr Nikolayevich Baryshnikov Mikhail Nikolayevich Benois Alexandre Nikolayevich Kosygin Aleksey Nikolayevich Kuropatkin Aleksey Nikolayevich Milyukov Pavel Nikolayevich Ostrovsky Aleksandr… …   Universalium

  • Nikolay — (as used in expressions) Nikolay Nikolayevich Bukharin Nikolay Ivanovich Bulganin Nikolay Aleksandrovich Chernyshevsky Nikolay Gavrilovich Danilevsky Nikolay Yakovlevich Giers Nikolay Karlovich Gogol Nikolay Vasilyevich Ignatyev Nikolay Pavlovich …   Universalium

  • Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov — Nikolay Nikolayevich Semyonov (En idioma ruso: Николай Николаевич Семёнов) Químico ruso. Nació en Saratov en abril de 1896. Premio Nóbel de Química en 1956, compartido con Cyril Norman Hinshelwood. Director del Instituto de Química Física de la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Khariton, Yuly Borisovich — ▪ 1997       Russian physicist who figured prominently in the development of nuclear physics research in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and 40s and, as director of the nuclear research centre Arzamas 16, oversaw the construction of the first… …   Universalium

  • Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman — ▪ British chemist born June 19, 1897, London, Eng. died Oct. 9, 1967, London       British chemist who worked on reaction rates and reaction mechanisms, particularly that of the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to form water, one of the most… …   Universalium

  • Nobel Prize winners by name — ▪ Table Nobel Prize winners by name A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Y   Z A name year category country* achievement literary area Abrikosov, Alexey A. 2003 physics U.S. discoveries… …   Universalium

  • Nobel Prize winners by year — ▪ Table Nobel Prize winners by year 1901–10 1941–50 1981–90 1911–20 1951–60 1991–2000 1921–30 1961–70 2001–08 1931–40 1971–80 1901–10 year category name country* achievement literary area 1901 chemistry Henricus van t (Hoff, Jacobus Henricus van… …   Universalium

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.