Schouten, Willem


Schouten, Willem

▪ Dutch explorer
in full  Willem Corneliszoon Schouten  
born 1567?, Hoorn, Neth.
died 1625, Antongil Bay, Madagascar

      Dutch explorer whose 1615–16 expedition discovered a new route, the Drake Passage, around the southern tip of South America, connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific.

      The Dutch East India Company held a monopoly on all East Indies trade by ships routed through the Strait of Magellan when, in 1615, an Amsterdam merchant, Isaac Le Maire, mounted an expedition to find a new route to the Pacific. His son Jakob and veteran sea captain Schouten led the voyage that set sail in May 1615 with two ships—the second piloted by Schouten's brother Jan. By December they reached the far southeastern coast of South America, where the smaller ship caught fire and had to be abandoned. Sailing south the next month, Schouten passed through the Le Maire Strait between Tierra Del Fuego and Estados (Staten) Island, and sailed into the Pacific. He gave the southernmost tip of America the name Cape Horn (Horn, Cape) (Dutch: Kaap Hoorn). This new route, now known as the Drake Passage, was longer but much simpler than the established passage through the Strait of Magellan.

      The expedition went on to discover new islands (later named the Schouten Islands) off the northwestern coast of New Guinea before reaching its destination, Batavia, Java (now Jakarta, Indon.), in October 1616. There the Dutch governor, aware that any new route might end the privileged position of the Dutch East India Company, refused to believe that Schouten had discovered a new route westward and confiscated his cargo. Schouten and Le Maire were charged with infringing on the company's monopoly and were sent home to Holland; Le Maire died along the way. Upon Schouten's return to the Netherlands, his (and Le Maire's) diaries, complete with maps, were published and proved valuable to subsequent explorers.

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Universalium. 2010.

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