Santa Cruz, Álvaro de Bazán, Marqués de


Santa Cruz, Álvaro de Bazán, Marqués de

▪ Spanish naval commander
born Dec. 12, 1526, Granada, Spain
died Feb. 9, 1588, Lisbon, Port.

      the foremost Spanish naval commander of his day. He was prominent in many successful naval engagements in a century that saw Spain rise to the zenith of its power and was the first proponent and planner of the Spanish Armada, the fleet that was to attempt the invasion of England shortly after his death.

      The son of a Spanish naval commander, he entered the navy at an early age and fought against the French, the Turks, and the Moors in the Mediterranean. He steadily advanced in rank and was created the Marqués de Santa Cruz in 1569. In the Battle of Lepanto (Lepanto, Battle of) against the Turks (1571), Santa Cruz, as commander of the reserve fleet, displayed excellent seamanship and played an important role in the crushing of the Turkish fleet.

      In 1580 Santa Cruz commanded the fleet that aided the Duke de Alba's conquest of Portugal. Three years later, at the Second Battle of Terceira, Santa Cruz defeated a superior French naval squadron sent unofficially to support a rebellion in the Azores against Philip II, the Spanish king. His victory was marred, however, by his execution of all French prisoners despite the protests of his own men. This act did not prevent Philip II from appointing him “captain general of the ocean.”

      It was after that battle that Santa Cruz urged Philip II to undertake the invasion of England; his letter of Aug. 9, 1583, to the king is generally considered as the first step in the creation of the Spanish Armada. Philip, who scaled down Santa Cruz's original requisition of ships and men, appointed him naval commander of the invasion force. Santa Cruz then began the task of preparing the fleet at Lisbon. In spite of difficulties in obtaining men and supplies, English raids, and Philip's interference, Santa Cruz succeeded in assembling and fitting out nearly the entire Armada before his untimely death. The Armada then was given to the Duke de Medina-Sidonia, a man thoroughly unfamiliar with naval affairs. Whether Santa Cruz would have succeeded in the invasion of England has been a topic of conjecture for historians.

Additional Reading
Garrett Mattingly, The Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 2nd ed. (1983).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Santa Cruz — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Santa Cruz puede referirse a: Contenido 1 Religión 1.1 Cruz 1.2 Edificios religiosos …   Wikipedia Español

  • Alvaro de Bazán — Álvaro de Bazán (* 12. Dezember 1526 in Granada; † 9. Februar 1588 in Lissabon) war ein spanischer Flottenkommandant (Capitán General de la Mar Océano) und Marqués de Santa Cruz. Kurzbiografie Alvaro de Bazán entstammte einer alten spanischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Álvaro de Bazán — Alvaro de Bazán Álvaro de Bazán (* 12. Dezember 1526 in Granada; † 9. Februar 1588 in Lissabon) war ein spanischer Flottenkommandant (Capitán General de la Mar Océano) und Marqués de Santa Cruz. Kurzbiografie Alvaro de Bazán entstammte e …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Álvaro de Bazán (F-101) — SH 60 Seahawk apontando sobre la F 101 Álvaro de Bazán. Banderas …   Wikipedia Español

  • Álvaro de Bazán — Álvaro de Bazán, Marqués de Santa Cruz de Mudela (Granada, 12 de diciembre de 1526 Lisboa, 9 de febrero de 1588), militar español al mando de la escuadra de reserva que tan decisiva actuación tuvo en la batalla de Lepanto. Según algunos biógrafos …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Álvaro de Bazán — Para otros usos de este término, véase Álvaro de Bazán (desambiguación). Álvaro de Bazán y Guzmán Álvaro de Bazán, Marqués de Santa Cruz. Almiran …   Wikipedia Español

  • Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz — This article is about the 16th century Spanish admiral. For other uses, see Álvaro de Bazán (disambiguation). Álvaro de Bazán Born December 12, 1526 …   Wikipedia

  • Álvaro de Bazán el Viejo — Álvaro de Bazán, llamado el Viejo (1506 – 1558), fue un marino español, de ascendencia navarra, que alcanzó el grado de Almirante de Castilla. Padre de Álvaro de Bazán, primer marqués de Santa Cruz, y que superó en fama a su progenitor. También… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Santa Cruz de Mudela — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Santa Cruz de Mudela Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Álvaro de Bazán (desambiguación) — Álvaro de Bazán puede referise a: Álvaro de Bazán, El Viejo (1506–1558), marino español. Álvaro de Bazán y Guzmán, I marqués de Santa Cruz (1526–1588), marino español hijo del anterior Álvaro de Bazán y Benvides, II marqués de Santa Cruz… …   Wikipedia Español


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.