Ruisdael, Jacob van


Ruisdael, Jacob van

▪ Dutch painter
Ruisdael also spelled  Ruysdael  
born 1628/29, Haarlem, Neth.—buried March 14, 1682, Amsterdam

      Baroque artist, often considered the greatest Dutch landscape painter.

      He was probably the pupil of his father, the frame maker and artist Isaak de Goyer, who later called himself Ruysdael. None of Isaak's paintings have been identified with certainty, and it is impossible to determine the nature and extent of his influence on Ruisdael. The influence of Cornelis Vroom, another Haarlem landscapist, is often noticeable in his early works of the 1640s. The earliest dated pictures are of 1646. Two years later Ruisdael became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in Haarlem. From 1650 to 1653 he traveled extensively in the Netherlands and the neighbouring parts of western Germany. In about 1655 he settled in Amsterdam, of which he became a free citizen in 1659. Meindert Hobbema was his most famous pupil and follower.

      Ruisdael's early work, such as the “Dunes” (c. 1647; Louvre), reflects his obsession with trees. Earlier Dutch artists use trees merely as decorative compositional devices, but Ruisdael makes them the subject of his paintings and imbues them with forceful personalities. His draftsmanship is meticulously precise and is enriched by thick impasto, which adds depth and character to the foliage and trunks of his trees. After 1650 the monumentality of his landscapes increases. In his view of “Bentheim Castle” (1653; National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin), the forms become more massive, the colours more vibrant, and the composition more concentrated. The latter quality is even more evident in his famous “Jewish Cemetery” (c. 1660; Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden), which is one of his most masterly compositions. All motifs of secondary importance serve as accessories to the main motif, three ruined tombs. The painting symbolizes the transience of temporal things.

 After 1656 Ruisdael's compositions became more spacious and his palette became brighter. His paintings of waterfalls (see photograph—>) and his “Marsh in the Woods” (c. 1665; Hermitage, St. Petersburg), recall his earlier interest in forest scenes. But more often his late works, such as the “Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede” (c. 1665; Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam), “Wheatfields” (c. 1670; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), and his numerous views of Haarlem display panoramas of the flat Dutch countryside. The horizon is invariably low and distant and dominated by a vast, clouded sky. Sometimes the small figures in his pictures were added by other artists, such as Adriaen van de Velde, Johannes Lingelbach, Philips Wouwerman, and Claes Berchem. He also produced several delicately finished etchings, one of the most famous of which is “The Cornfield” (Petit-Palais, Paris).

Additional Reading
Christopher Brown, Dutch Landscape: The Early Years, Haarlem and Amsterdam, 1590–1650 (1986), an exhibition catalog; Alan Chong, “The Market for Landscape Painting in Seventeenth-Century Holland,” in Peter C. Sutton, Masters of 17th-Century Dutch Landscape Painting (1987), an exhibition catalog; E. John Walford, Jacob van Ruisdael and the Perception of Landscape (1991).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ruisdael,Jacob van — Ruis·dael or Ruys·dael (rīzʹdäl , rīsʹ , rousʹ ), Jacob van. 1628? 1682. Dutch landscape painter whose baroque works, such as Windmill at Wijk (c. 1665), depict the majesty of nature. * * * …   Universalium

  • Ruysdael /Ruisdael, Jacob van —  (1628–1682) Dutch artist; pronounced [royz dale] …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • RUISDAEL (J. van) — Salomon van Ruysdael et surtout son neveu Jacob van Ruisdael, l’un des plus célèbres paysagistes du XVIIe siècle, comptent parmi les plus illustres représentants d’un genre qui occupe une place toute particulière dans la peinture hollandaise. En… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Jacob Van Ruisdael — Jacob van Ruysdael Nom de naissance Jacob Izaaksz. van Ruysdael Naissance vers 1628 Haarlem Décès 14 mars 1682 Amsterdam ou Haarlem Nationalité néerlandaise …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacob van ruisdael — Jacob van Ruysdael Nom de naissance Jacob Izaaksz. van Ruysdael Naissance vers 1628 Haarlem Décès 14 mars 1682 Amsterdam ou Haarlem Nationalité néerlandaise …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacob Van Ruysdael — Jacob van Ruisdael Jacob van Ruysdael Nom de naissance Jacob Izaaksz. van Ruysdael Naissance vers 1628 Haarlem Décès 14 mars 1682 Amsterdam ou Haarlem Nationalité néerlandaise …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacob van Ruysdael — Jacob van Ruisdael Jacob van Ruysdael Nom de naissance Jacob Izaaksz. van Ruysdael Naissance vers 1628 Haarlem Décès 14 mars 1682 Amsterdam ou Haarlem Nationalité néerlandaise …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacob van Ruisdael — Jacob van Ruysdael Nom de naissance Jacob Izaaksz. van Ruysdael Naissance vers 1628 Haarlem Décès 14 mars 1682 Amsterdam ou Haarlem Nationalité néerlandaise …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jacob van Ruisdael — Eichenwald an einem See, Gemäldegalerie Berlin Jacob Izaakszoon van Ruisdael (* um 1628 29[1] in Haarlem; † 14. März 1682 in Amsterdam oder Haarlem) war ein niederländischer Landschafts und Marinemaler. Inhaltsver …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jacob van Ruysdael — Eichenwald an einem See, Gemäldegalerie Berlin Jacob Izaakszoon van Ruisdael (* um 1628 29[1] in Haarlem; † 14. März 1682 in Amsterdam oder Haarlem) war ein niederländischer Landschafts und Marinemaler. Inhaltsver …   Deutsch Wikipedia