revitalization movement


revitalization movement

 organized attempt to create a more satisfying culture, with the new culture often modeled after previous modes of living. Nativistic, revivalistic (revivalism), messianic (messiah), millenarian, and utopian (utopia) movements are all varieties of revitalization movements, according to anthropologist Anthony F.C. Wallace (Wallace, Anthony F.C.), who introduced the term. Any given movement may contain elements of several of these varieties.

      Social scientists generally agree that revitalization movements are societal responses to excessive stress. However, several mutually exclusive theories have been proposed to explain the generation of a revitalization movement: acculturation holds that conquest and other forms of hegemony generate utopian movements; social evolution views revitalization movements as expressions of empowerment by disadvantaged classes or groups; and absolute deprivation posits that dissatisfaction with a low standard of living leads people to adopt a revolutionary ideology. The most widely accepted theory, relative deprivation, suggests that revitalization movements may occur when a significant proportion of a society finds its status and economic circumstances trailing those of the rest of society, even if the dissatisfied group has a relatively high standard of living according to independent economic measures or in comparison to its past standard of living.

      Revitalization movements usually have at their head one or more prophets or charismatic leaders who initiate the call for social transformation. Instances of revitalization movements include early Methodism (1738–1800, in England and the United States), the Shaker movement (from 1774, in the United States), the Ghost Dance among the North American Plains Indians (Plains Indian) (1888–90), the Sudanese Mahdists (Mahdist) (from the late 19th century), the Boxer movement (Boxer Rebellion) (1898–1900, China), and the Mau Mau movement (Mau Mau) (1950s, Kenya).

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Revitalization movement — In 1956, Anthony F. C. Wallace published a paper called Revitalization Movements to describe how cultures change themselves. A revitalization movement is a deliberate, organized, conscious effort by members of a group to create a new culture, and …   Wikipedia

  • revitalization movement — See messianic movement ; new religions …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Sathya Sai Baba movement — ambox type = content text = This article may be inaccurate or in favor of certain viewpoints. Please [SERVERlocalurl:Sathya Sai Baba movement|action=edit improve the article] by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on… …   Wikipedia

  • Arab Ba'ath Movement — حركة البعث العربي Leader Michel Aflaq Founded 1940 (1940) Dissolved 1947 (1947) …   Wikipedia

  • Oxford movement —    The Oxford movement was a revitalization movement within the Church of England in the 1830s, which aimed to revive the church s Catholic roots in order to keep it from becoming just another Protestant sect. Among the events that contributed to …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • OXFORD MOVEMENT —    also known as TRACTARIANISM and ANGLO CATHOLICISM it was a nineteenth century REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT within ANGLICANISM which sought to revive SPIRITUALITY through LITURGICAL renewal and a return to medieval religious practices associated… …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • Language revitalization — is the attempt by interested parties, including individuals, cultural or community groups, governments, or political authorities, to recover the spoken use of a language that is endangered, moribund, or no longer spoken. Language death is the… …   Wikipedia

  • Communist Youth Movement (Netherlands) — Communist Youth Movement Communistische Jongeren Beweging Chairperson Arlen Sabajo Founded September 21, 2003 Headquarters …   Wikipedia

  • American Indian Movement — ▪ American civil rights organization       (AIM), militant American Indian civil rights organization, founded in Minneapolis, Minn., in 1968 by Dennis Banks, Clyde Bellecourt, Eddie Benton Banai, and George Mitchell. Later, Russell Means became a …   Universalium

  • Ghost Dance — Noted in historical accounts as the Ghost Dance of 1890, the Ghost Dance was a religious movement incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems. The traditional ritual used in the Ghost Dance, the circle dance, has been used by many… …   Wikipedia