Red Cross and Red Crescent


Red Cross and Red Crescent

▪ charitable organization
in full  International Movement of the Red Cross and Red Crescent , formerly (until 1986)  International Red Cross  
 humanitarian agency with national affiliates in almost every country in the world. The Red Cross movement began with the founding of the International Committee for the Relief of the Wounded (now the International Committee of the Red Cross) in 1863; it was established to care for victims of battle in time of war, but later national Red Cross societies were created to aid in the prevention and relief of human suffering generally. Its peacetime activities include first aid, accident prevention, water safety, training of nurses' aids and mothers' assistants, and maintenance of maternal and child welfare centres and medical clinics, blood banks, and numerous other services. The Red Cross is the name used in countries under nominally Christian sponsorship; Red Crescent (adopted on the insistence of the Ottoman Empire in 1906) is the name used in Muslim countries.

 The Red Cross arose out of the work of Henri Dunant (Dunant, Henri), a Swiss humanitarian, who, at the Battle of Solferino, in June 1859, organized emergency aid services for Austrian and French wounded. In his book Un Souvenir de Solferino (1862; A Memory of Solferino) he proposed the formation in all countries of voluntary relief societies, and in 1863 the International Committee for the Relief of the Wounded was created. This organization in turn spawned national Red Cross societies.

      The Geneva Convention of Aug. 22, 1864, the first multilateral agreement on the Red Cross, committed signatory governments to care for the wounded of war, whether enemy or friend. Later, this convention was revised, and new conventions were adopted to protect victims of warfare at sea (1907), prisoners of war (1929), and civilians in time of war (1949).

 The worldwide structure of the Red Cross and Red Crescent now consists of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC; Comité International de la Croix-Rouge); the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (Fédération Internationale des Sociétés de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge); and the national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies. The governing committee of the ICRC is an independent council of 25 Swiss citizens with headquarters at Geneva. During wartime the ICRC acts as an intermediary among belligerents and also among national Red Cross societies. It also visits prisoners in war camps and provides relief supplies, mail, and information for their relatives. The ICRC was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1917 and 1944 and shared a third Nobel Prize for Peace with the League of Red Cross Societies (now International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies) in 1963. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, which has a secretariat in Geneva, helps provide relief after natural disaster and aids in the development of national societies.
 

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Red Crescent — ► NOUN ▪ a national branch in Muslim countries of the International Movement of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent …   English terms dictionary

  • Red Crescent of Bosnia and Herzegovina — The Red Cross Society of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a branch of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.ref|InternationalThe society has 226,760 volunteers and 9 employees.ref|DetailsThe United States alleged that… …   Wikipedia

  • red crescent — adjective Usage: usually capitalized R&C : of or relating to the Muslim equivalent of the International Red Cross * * * noun the Red Crescent : an organization in Islamic countries that helps people who are suffering because of a war or natural… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Red Crescent — /rɛd ˈkrɛzənt/ (say red krezuhnt) noun a humanitarian organisation in a Muslim country, performing similar functions to the Red Cross; such societies now incorporated into the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement …   Australian English dictionary

  • Red Crescent Society of Turkmenistan — The Red Crescent Society of Turkmenistan was established in 1926 and it has its headquarters in Ashgabat.External links* [http://www.ifrc.org/docs/profiles/tmprofile.pdf Red Crescent Society of Turkmenistan profile] * [http://www.redcross.int… …   Wikipedia

  • Red Crescent — noun a national branch in Muslim countries of the International Movement of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent …   English new terms dictionary

  • International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement — Red Cross redirects here. For other uses, see Red Cross (disambiguation). Ibrahim Foundation The Red Cross and Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the movement derives its name. Founded 1863 Location Gen …   Wikipedia

  • List of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies — The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the world s largest group of humanitarian non governmental organizations. The Movement is composed of the following bodies:*The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), a committee… …   Wikipedia

  • Emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement — The emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, under the Geneva Conventions, are to be placed on humanitarian and medical vehicles and buildings to protect them from military attack on the battlefield. There are four such… …   Wikipedia

  • Malaysian Red Crescent Society — Malaysian Red Crescent Type Non profit organization Industry Health Founded 1948 …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.