Poncelet, Jean-Victor


Poncelet, Jean-Victor

▪ French mathematician
born July 1, 1788, Metz, France
died December 22, 1867, Paris
 French mathematician and engineer who was one of the founders of modern projective geometry.

      As a lieutenant of engineers in 1812, he took part in Napoleon's Russian campaign, in which he was abandoned as dead at Krasnoy and imprisoned at Saratov; he returned to France in 1814. During his imprisonment Poncelet studied projective geometry and wrote Applications d'analyse et de géométrie, 2 vol. (1862–64; “Applications of Analysis and Geometry”). This work was originally planned as an introduction to his celebrated Traité des propriétés projectives des figures (1822; “Treatise on the Projective Properties of Figures”), for which Poncelet is regarded as one of the greatest projective geometers. His development of the pole and polar lines associated with conic sections (conic section) led to the principle of duality (exchanging “dual” elements, such as points and lines, along with their corresponding statements, in a true theorem produces a true “dual statement”) and a dispute over priority with the German mathematician Julius Plücker (Plücker, Julius) for its discovery. His principle of continuity, a concept designed to add generality to synthetic geometry (limited to geometric arguments), led to the introduction of imaginary points (see complex numbers (complex number)) and the development of algebraic geometry.

      From 1815 to 1825 Poncelet was occupied with military engineering at Metz, and from 1825 to 1835 he was a professor of mechanics at the École d'Application there. He applied mathematics to the improvement of turbines (turbine) and waterwheels. Although the first inward-flow turbine was not built until 1838, he proposed such a turbine in 1826. In Paris from 1838 to 1848 he was a professor at the Faculty of Sciences, and from 1848 to 1850 he was commandant of the École Polytechnique, with the rank of general.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Poncelet, Jean-Victor — (1788 1867)    military figure, mathematician    Born in Metz, Jean Victor Poncelet, upon finishing at the École polytechnique, joined the engineering corps of the army and during the Russian campaign (1812) was taken prisoner and held at Saratov …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Poncelet, Jean-Victor — ► (1788 1867) Matemático y general francés. Participó en la campaña de Rusia y se dedicó al estudio de la geometría …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Jean-victor poncelet — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Poncelet. Jean Victor Poncelet N …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jean Victor Poncelet — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Poncelet. Jean Victor Poncelet N …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jean Victor Poncelet — Jean Victor Poncelet. Jean Victor Poncelet (* 1. Juli 1788 in Metz; † 22. Dezember 1867[1] in Paris) war französischer Mathematiker, Ingenieur und Physiker. Er war einer der Begründer der modernen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jean-Victor Poncelet — (1 de julio de 1788, Metz – 22 de diciembre de 1867, París) fue un matemático e ingeniero francés que hizo mucho por recuperar la geometría proyectiva. Nació Jean Victor Poncelet en Metz, en el año 1788. Estudió en la Escuela Politécnica y en la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Jean-Victor Poncelet — Jean Victor Poncelet. Jean Victor Poncelet (* 1. Juli 1788 in Metz; † 22. Dezember 1867[1] in Paris) war französischer Mathematiker, Ingenieur und Physiker. Er war einer der Begründe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Jean-Victor Poncelet — Infobox Scientist name = Jean Victor Poncelet image width = 250px caption = birth date = birth date|1788|7|1|fd=y birth place = Metz, France residence = Metz, France (later Paris, France) nationality = French death date = death date and… …   Wikipedia

  • Jean-Victor Poncelet — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Poncelet. Jean Victor Poncelet Naissance 1er juillet 1788 Metz ( …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Poncelet — Poncelet, Jean Victor …   Enciclopedia Universal


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