Philaret

Philaret

▪ Russian Orthodox theologian
also spelled  Filaret,  original name  Vasily Mikhaylovich Drozdov 
born Dec. 26, 1782, [Jan. 6, 1783, New Style], Kolomna, near Moscow, Russia
died Nov. 19 [Dec. 1], 1867, Moscow

      Russian Orthodox biblical theologian and metropolitan, or archbishop, of Moscow whose scholarship, oratory, and administrative ability made him the leading Russian churchman of the 19th century.

      Upon his graduation from the Trinity Monastery, near Moscow, in 1803, Philaret was appointed as a teacher there and, in 1806, as a monastery preacher. In 1808 he took monastic vows and also was named professor of philosophy and theology, and subsequently rector, at St. Petersburg's Theological Academy. Rising rapidly in his church career, he became a member of the Holy Synod in 1818 after serving with numerous ecclesiastical-reform commissions, was named archbishop of Tver in 1819, and in 1821 was transferred to Moscow. An activist, Philaret quickly established himself as a power in church and state. Considered as charismatic by the Russian Orthodox, he served as the final authority in theological and legal questions, his decisions eventually being published in 1905 with the title “Views and Comments.”

      By 1858, having overcome extended opposition, Philaret successfully directed the translation of the Bible into modern Russian. His chief theological work was the “Christian Catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Eastern Greco-Russian Church,” treating the 4th-century Nicene Creed, the theology of prayer, and the Mosaic Law. First published in 1823, Philaret's “Catechism” was subjected to several revisions to expunge its Lutheran influences, but after 1839 it exercised widespread influence on 19th-century Russian theology.

▪ patriarch of Moscow
also spelled  Filaret,  original name  Fyodor Nikitich Romanov 
born c. 1554, /55
died Oct. 12 [Oct. 22, New Style], 1633, Moscow, Russia

      Russian Orthodox patriarch of Moscow and father of the first Romanov tsar.

      During the reign (1584–98) of his cousin, Tsar Fyodor I, Philaret served in the military campaign against the Swedes in 1590 and later (1593–94) conducted diplomatic negotiations with them. After Fyodor's death, Philaret was banished to a monastery by Boris Godunov (reigned 1598–1605). On Godunov's sudden death in 1605 and the subsequent shift of power to the first False Dmitry, Philaret was released and made metropolitan (archbishop) of Rostov. In 1610 he was imprisoned by the Poles while trying to arrange the accession of Prince Władysław of Poland to the Russian throne, but he was freed in 1619 after the election of his son Michael as tsar. Philaret was made patriarch of Moscow that year.

      Exercising both ecclesiastical and political rule in Russia, Philaret reformed church administration, instituted a program to establish a divinity college in each diocese, and established libraries to upgrade theological scholarship. In a Moscow synod he decreed that all Latin Christians coming into the Russian Orthodox church must be rebaptized. His ecclesiastical policy strove to minimize the influence of the Roman Catholic church among Russian and Polish bishops. In addition to further developing the Russian liturgical books, Philaret also sponsored social legislation to stabilize the peasant farmers, reformed the tax structure, and reorganized the military.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Philaret — (russisch Филарет/Filaret, bürgerlicher Name Фёдор Никитич Романов/Fjodor Nikititsch Romanow; * um 1553; † 1. Oktoberjul./ 11. Oktober 1633greg.) war von 1619 bis 1633 Patriarch von Moskau …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Philaret — Philaret, 1) Mönchs u. geistlicher Name des Michael Romanow, s.d. 2) Wassilj Drosow, geb. 1782 in Kolomna, wurde 1812 Rector der Alexander Newsky Akademie in Petersburg, 1817 Bischof von Reval, 1819 Erzbischof von Twer, 1820 Bischof von Jaroslaw… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Philarēt — Philarēt, russ. Theolog und Kirchen fürst (früher Wasilij Drosdow), geb. 1782 als Sohn des Küsters von Kolomna, gest. 1. Dez. 1867 in Moskau, ward Priester und 1812 Rektor der Alexander Newskij Akademie in Petersburg, 1817 Bischof von Reval, 1819 …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Philaret von Moskau — Philaret Philaret (russisch Филарет/Filaret, bürgerlicher Name Фёдор Никитич Романов/Fjodor Nikititsch Romanow; * um 1553; † 1. Oktoberjul./ 11. Oktober 1633greg.) war v …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Philaret Drosdow — (russisch Филарет Дроздов, bürgerlicher Name Василий Михайлович Дроздов/Wassili Michailowitsch Drosdow; * 26. Dezember 1782jul./ 6. Januar 1783greg. in Kolomna; † 19. Novemberjul./ 1. Dezember 1867greg. in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Philaret, Theodore Nikitich Romanov — (c. 1553–1633)    Patriarch.    Philaret was a cousin of Theodore I, the last Ruvik Czar of Russia. He had a successful military career in the war against Sweden, but, after Theodore’s death, he was imprisoned by his successor, Boris Godunov. He… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Philaret Drozdov — (1782–1867)    Metropolitan and Theologian.    Philaret was the son of a church cantor. He took monastic vows in 1808 and, in the same year, was appointed Professor of Philosophy at the Ecclesiastical Academy of St Petersburg. In 1820 he was… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Filaret — Philaret Philaret (russisch Филарет/Filaret, bürgerlicher Name Фёдор Никитич Романов/Fjodor Nikititsch Romanow; * um 1553; † 1. Oktoberjul./ 11. Oktober 1633greg.) war von 1619 bis 1633 Patriarch von Moskau …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Filaret Drosdow — Philaret Drosdow (russisch Филарет Дроздов, bürgerlicher Name Василий Михайлович Дроздов/Wassili Michailowitsch Drosdow; * 26. Dezember 1782jul./ 6. Januar 1783greg. in Kolomna; † 19. Novemberjul./ 1. Dezember 1867greg. in Moskau) war von 1826… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fjodor Nikitsch Romanow — Philaret Philaret (russisch Филарет/Filaret, bürgerlicher Name Фёдор Никитич Романов/Fjodor Nikititsch Romanow; * um 1553; † 1. Oktoberjul./ 11. Oktober 1633greg.) war von 1619 bis 1633 Patriarch von Moskau …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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