Peary, Robert Edwin


Peary, Robert Edwin

▪ American explorer
born May 6, 1856, Cresson, Pa., U.S.
died Feb. 20, 1920, Washington, D.C.
 U.S. Arctic explorer usually credited with leading the first expedition to reach the North Pole (1909).

      Peary entered the U.S. Navy in 1881 and pursued a naval career until his retirement, with leaves of absence granted for Arctic exploration. In 1886, with his black American associate Matthew Henson (Henson, Matthew Alexander), he traveled inland from Disko Bay over the Greenland ice sheet for 100 miles (161 km), reaching a point 7,500 feet (2,287.5 m) above sea level. In 1891 Peary returned to Greenland with seven companions, including his wife and Frederick A. Cook (Cook, Frederick Albert), who in 1909 would claim to have reached the North Pole before Peary. On this expedition Peary sledged 1,300 miles (2,100 km) to northeastern Greenland, discovered Independence Fjord, and found evidence of Greenland's being an island. He also studied the “Arctic Highlanders,” an isolated Eskimo tribe who helped him greatly on later expeditions.

 During his expedition of 1893–94 he again sledged to northeastern Greenland—this time in his first attempt to reach the North Pole. On summer trips in 1895 and 1896 he was mainly occupied in transporting masses of meteoric iron from Greenland to the United States. Between 1898 and 1902 he reconnoitred routes to the pole from Etah, in Inglefield Land, northwestern Greenland, and from Fort Conger, Ellesmere Island, in the Canadian Northwest Territories. On a second attempt to reach the pole he was provided with a ship built to his specifications, the Roosevelt, which he sailed to Cape Sheridan, Ellesmere Island, in 1905. But the sledging season was unsuccessful owing to adverse weather and ice conditions, and his party reached only 87°06′ N. Peary returned to Ellesmere in 1908 for his third attempt and early the following March left Cape Columbia on his successful journey to the pole. On the last stage of the trek he was accompanied by Henson and four Eskimo. Peary and his companions purportedly reached the North Pole on April 6, 1909. Peary returned to civilization only to discover that his former colleague, Cook, was claiming to have reached the North Pole independently in April 1908. Cook's claim, though subsequently discredited, marred Peary's enjoyment of his triumph. In 1911 Peary retired from the navy with the rank of rear admiral. His published works include Northward over the “Great Ice” (1898), The North Pole (1910), and Secrets of Polar Travel (1917).

 Peary's claim to have reached the North Pole was almost universally accepted, but in the 1980s the examination of his 1908–09 expedition diary and other newly released documents cast doubt on whether he had actually reached the pole. Through a combination of navigational mistakes and record-keeping errors, Peary may actually have advanced only to a point 30–60 miles (50–100 km) short of the pole. The truth remains uncertain.
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Peary,Robert Edwin — Pea·ry (pîrʹē), Robert Edwin. 1856 1920. American naval officer and Arctic explorer who led the expedition credited with first reaching the North Pole (1909). This claim was later rejected. * * * …   Universalium

  • Peary, Robert Edwin — ► (1856 1920) Explorador estadounidense. Descubrió el polo Norte. Obras: El Polo Norte: Su descubrimiento en 1909 y Los secretos del viaje polar …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Peary, Robert Edwin —  (1856–1920) American admiral and explorer, first to reach the North Pole (1909) …   Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors

  • Robert Edwin Peary — Robert Peary Robert Peary Robert Edwin Peary, né le 6 mai 1856 et mort le 20 février 1920, fut un explorateur américain, surtout connu pour ses expéditions arctiques à travers le Gröenland (1886, 1891 1892) et à destination du pôle Nord (1893… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Robert Edwin Peary — Robert E. Peary (1856–1920) Robert Edwin Peary (* 6. Mai 1856 in Cresson, Pennsylvania; † 20. Februar 1920 in Washington (D.C.)) war ein US amerikanischer Ingenieur und Polarforscher. Er behauptete, im Jahre 1909 als erster Mensch den Nordpol… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Edwin Peary — noun United States Arctic explorer and United States naval officer who has been regarded as the first man to reach the North Pole (1856 1920) • Syn: ↑Peary, ↑Robert Peary, ↑Robert E. Peary • Instance Hypernyms: ↑explorer, ↑adventurer …   Useful english dictionary

  • Robert Edwin Peary — ➡ Peary * * * …   Universalium

  • Peary — Peary, Robert Edwin …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Robert Peary — Robert E. Peary (1856–1920) Robert Edwin Peary (* 6. Mai 1856 in Cresson, Pennsylvania; † 20. Februar 1920 in Washington (D.C.)) war ein US amerikanischer Ingenieur und Polarforscher. Er behauptete, im Jahre 1909 als erster Mensch den Nordpol… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Robert Peary — Robert Edwin Peary, né le 6 mai 1856 et mort le 20 février 1920, fut un explorateur américain, surtout connu pour ses expéditions arctiques à travers le Groenland (1886, 1891 1892) et à destination du pôle Nord (1893 1895, 1896, 1897, 1898 1902,… …   Wikipédia en Français


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