also called (1919–77)  Simplon–Orient-Express 

      luxury train that ran from Paris to Constantinople ( Istanbul) for more than 80 years (1883–1977). Europe's first transcontinental express, it initially covered a route of more than 1,700 miles (about 2,740 km) that included brief stopovers in such cities as Munich, Vienna, Budapest, and Bucharest. Its service was stopped by World War I but resumed in 1919, with the route running from Calais and Paris to Lausanne, then via the Simplon Pass to Milan, Venice, Zagreb, Belgrade, and Sofia; the train was then called the Simplon–Orient-Express. Interrupted again during World War II, service resumed in 1947.

      The Orient-Express was developed by the Belgian businessman Georges Nagelmackers and made its inaugural run in 1883. During its first journey the passengers traveled from Paris to the Bulgarian port of Varna via train and were then ferried by steamship across the Black Sea to Constantinople. By 1889, however, the entire trip was by rail. Nagelmackers' firm, La Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits et des Grands Express Européens, furnished the train, which had sleeping, restaurant, and salon cars that housed smoking compartments and ladies' drawing rooms. With its Oriental rugs, velvet draperies, mahogany paneling, deep armchairs covered in soft Spanish leather, and fine cuisine, the Orient-Express was unmatched in luxuriousness and comfort. For years it attracted the elite of Europe's society, including royalty. The glamour of the train also caught the imagination of numerous writers, among them Graham Greene and Agatha Christie, whose works helped to make it world-famous.

      The Orient-Express was discontinued in 1977 after several decades of steadily declining ridership. In 1982, an American, James Sherwood, revived the train as the Venice Simplon Orient-Express, with several routes between London and Venice.

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Universalium. 2010.

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