- Navarro, Pedro, conde de Olivetto
▪ Spanish military engineer and generalborn c. 1460died 1528Spanish military engineer and general who fought for various countries and city-states in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.Navarro began life as a sailor and was employed later as mozo de espuela, or running footman, by Cardinal Juan de Aragon. On the death of his employer in 1485 he enlisted as a mercenary in a war between Florence and Genoa and was subsequently engaged for some years in the warfare between Genoese corsairs and the Muslims of North Africa. Navarro was no more scrupulous than others, for in 1499 he was at Civitavecchia, recovering from a gunshot wound received in a piratical attack on a Portuguese trading ship.When Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba (Fernández de Córdoba, Gonzalo) was sent by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to Sicily to take part with the French in the partition of Naples, Navarro enlisted under him, and in 1500 Navarro laid mines to breach the walls at Cephalonia without much success. He distinguished himself in the Italian campaigns of 1502–03 by the defense of Canosa and of Taranto and by his share in the victory at Cerignola. His mining operation in 1503 against the castles of Naples, held by French garrisons, won him fame as the first military engineer of his age. At the expulsion of the French from Naples, he received from King Ferdinand (Ferdinand II) a grant of land and the title of Count de Olivetto.In 1508 he took Vélez de Gómera (in North Africa), largely by means of a species of floating battery that he had invented. He did excellent service in the conquest of Oran (1509) and took Bougie and Tripoli in 1510. There was some talk of appointing him to command the army of the Holy League formed against the French in 1511, but his humble birth was thought to disqualify him. Nevertheless he was given a subordinate command. At Ravenna he covered the orderly retreat of the Spanish forces, was taken prisoner by the French, and imprisoned in the castle of Loches in France. The parsimonious King Ferdinand refused to pay his ransom, and, after three years of imprisonment, Navarro vengefully changed sides and entered the service of Francis I of France. Navarro distinguished himself in various campaigns in northern Italy and in 1522 was taken prisoner at Genoa by the Spaniards. He was confined at Naples until the peace of 1526, but, beyond the confiscation of his Olivetto estate, no punishment was inflicted for his treason. He engaged in only one more campaign, in Naples in 1527.
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