Murad I


Murad I

▪ Ottoman sultan
born 1326?
died June 20/28 or August 28, 1389, Kosovo [now in Serbia]
 Ottoman sultan who ruled from 1360 to 1389. Murad's reign witnessed rapid Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) expansion in Anatolia and the Balkans and the emergence of new forms of government and administration to consolidate Ottoman rule in these areas.

      Murad ascended the throne in succession to his father, Orhan. Shortly after Murad's accession, his forces penetrated western Thrace and took Adrianople (Edirne) and Philippopolis and forced the Byzantine emperor John V Palaeologus to become a vassal. Adrianople was renamed Edirne, and it became Murad's capital. In 1366 a crusade commanded by Amadeus VI of Savoy rescued the Byzantines and occupied Gallipoli on the Dardanelles, but the Turks recaptured the town the next year. In 1371 Murad crushed a coalition of southern Serbian princes at Chernomen in the Battle of the Maritsa River (Maritsa River, Battle of the), took the Macedonian towns of Dráma, Kavála, and Seres (Sérrai), and won a significant victory over a Bulgarian-Serbian coalition at Samakow (now Samokovo). These victories brought large territories under direct Ottoman rule and made the princes of northern Serbia and Bulgaria, as well as the Byzantine emperor, Murad's vassal.

      In the 1380s Murad resumed his offensive in the west. Sofia was taken in 1385 and Niš in 1386. Meanwhile, in Anatolia, Murad had extended his power as far as Tokat and consolidated his authority in Ankara. Through marriage, purchase, and conquest he also acquired territories from the principalities of Germiyan, Tekke, and Hamid. A coalition of Turkmen principalities led by the Karaman was formed to stem Ottoman expansion, but it was defeated at Konya (1386).

      In 1387 or 1388 a coalition of northern Serbian princes and Bosnians stopped the Ottomans at Pločnik, but in 1389 Murad and his son Bayezid (later Bayezid I) defeated them at the first Battle of Kosovo (Kosovo, Battle of), although Murad was killed by a Serbian noble who pretended to defect to the Ottoman camp.

      Under Murad I the seeds of some of the basic Ottoman imperial institutions were sown. The administrative military offices of kaziasker (military judge), beylerbeyi (commander in chief), and grand vizier (chief minister) crystallized and were granted to persons outside the family of Osman I, founder of the dynasty. The origins of the Janissary corps (elite forces) and the devşirme (child-levy) system through which the Janissaries were recruited are also traced to Murad's reign.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Murad — (also spelled Mourad, Arabic: مراد‎) is a masculine Arabic given name, it may refer to: Contents 1 Given name 2 Surname 3 Other 4 See also …   Wikipedia

  • Murad — ist ein männlicher Vorname, der in mehreren Sprachen vorkommt. Er kann auch Familienname sein. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Bedeutung 2 Varianten 3 Bekannte Namensträger 3.1 Fiktion …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murad IV — Murad IV. Murad IV (16 de junio de 1612 – 9 de febrero de 1640), sultán del Imperio otomano desde 1623 a 1640, fue conocido tanto por haber restaurado la autoridad del estado como por la brutalidad de sus métodos empleados. Llegó al poder gracias …   Wikipedia Español

  • Murad I. — Murad I., osmanische Miniatur des 16. Jahrhunderts Murad I. (‏مراد بن اورخان‎ / Murād b. Orḫān; * 1319 oder 1326; † 15. Juni 1389 auf dem Amselfeld), genannt ‏ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murad I — Bey de la tribu de los osmanlíes Sultán del Imperio Otomano Reinado 1359 1383 (como bey de los osmanlíes) 1389 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Murad IV. — Murad IV. Sultan Murad IV. beim Festessen, Osmanische Miniatur …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murad II — Sultán del Imperio Otomano Reinado 1421 1444 (primer período) 1446 1451 (segundo período) Nacimiento 1404 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Murad II. — Murad II. als Bogenschütze, osmanische Miniatur von 1584 Murad II., ‏‏مراد بن محمد‎‎ / Murād b. Meḥemmed; (* Juni 1404 in Amasya; † 3. Februar 1451 in Edirne) war von 1421 bis 1451 (mit ei …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murad V. — Murad V. Murad V. (* 21. September 1840 in Konstantinopel, heute Istanbul; † 29. August 1904 ebenda) war vom 30. Mai 1876 bis zum 31. August desselben Jahres Sultan des Osmanischen Reiches …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murād II — Murad II. Murad II., Gazi (* um 1403; † 3. Februar 1451 in Adrianopel) war von 1421 bis 1451 (mit einer Unterbrechung von 1444 bis 1446) Sultan des Osmanischen Reiches. Murad folgte seinem Vater Mehmed I. auf dem Thron. Der von dem byzantinischen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murad IV — (16 de junio de 1612 – 9 de febrero de 1640) rigió como sultán del Imperio Otomano desde 1623 a 1640, fue conocido tanto por haber restaurado la autoridad del estado como por la brutalidad de sus métodos empleados. Llegó al poder gracias a una… …   Enciclopedia Universal


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.