- Munzinger, Werner
▪ Swiss linguist and explorerborn April 21, 1832, Olten, Switzerlanddied October 27, 1875, near Lake Assal (Ausa, Abyssinia [now Djibouti])Swiss linguist and explorer particularly noted for his travels in what is now Eritrea.Munzinger studied natural science, Oriental languages, and history in Bern, Munich, and Paris and then went to Egypt to study Arabic further. Later, as leader of a trading expedition, he went to various parts of the Red Sea, establishing headquarters at Mitsiwa, in northern Abyssinia (now Massawa, Eritrea) on the Red Sea. In 1855 he moved to Keren and explored the surrounding territory during the next six years. In 1861 he joined an expedition under Theodor von Heuglin to central Africa but left the expedition in November in northern Abyssinia, proceeding along the Gash and Atbara rivers to Khartoum (now in The Sudan). Thence, having in the meantime succeeded Heuglin as leader of the expedition, in 1862 he traveled to Kordofan (Sudan), failing, however, in his attempt to reach Darfur and Wadai. After a short stay in Europe in 1863, Munzinger returned to the north and northeast borderlands of Abyssinia, and in 1865, the year of the annexation of Mitsiwa by Egypt, he was appointed British consul at that town. He rendered valuable aid to the Abyssinian expedition of 1867–68, among other things exploring the almost unknown Afar country (now Djibouti). In 1868 Munzinger was appointed French consul at Mitsiwa (Massawa) and in 1871 was given the title of bey and made governor of that town by the khedive Ismail. In 1870, with Captain S.B. Miles, Munzinger visited southern Arabia.As governor of Mitsiwa he annexed to Egypt two provinces of northern Abyssinia, and in 1872 he was made pasha and governor-general of the eastern Sudan. It is believed that it was on his advice that Ismail sanctioned the Abyssinian enterprise, but in 1875 the command of the Egyptian troops in northern Abyssinia was taken from Munzinger, who was selected to command a small expedition intended to open up communication with Menilek II, king of Shewa (Shoa), a potential ally of Egypt. Munzinger left the Gulf of Tadjura for Ankober with a force of 350 men and an envoy from Menilek. On reaching Lake Assal, the expedition was attacked during the night, and Munzinger, with his wife and nearly all his companions, was killed.
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