Münnich, Burkhard Christoph, Count von


Münnich, Burkhard Christoph, Count von

▪ Russian military officer
Russian  Burkhard Kristof Minikh 
born May 9 [May 19, New Style], 1683, Neuenhuntorf, Oldenburg, Denmark
died October 16 [October 27], 1767, Tartu, Russia

      military officer and statesman who was one of the major political figures in Russia during the reign of Empress Anna (reigned 1730–40) and who led the Russian Army to victory in the Russo-Turkish War of 1736–39.

      After service in the French and Polish-Saxon armies, Münnich entered the service of Peter I the Great of Russia in 1721 and participated in the construction of the Ladoga Canal. In 1728 he was given the title of count and was appointed commander in chief of the Russian Army by Peter II. Subsequently, Münnich was made a field marshal and president of the war council (1732) by Anna (Ivanovna), whose government was dominated by German advisers. During the War of the Polish Succession (1733–35), Münnich captured Gdańsk (1734), and then, after persistently advocating an aggressive policy toward the Ottoman Empire, he led the Russian Army into the Crimea and Moldavia to fight the Turks. Despite complications resulting from fighting a war at a great distance from the political centre of Russia, Münnich conquered Perekop, Ochakov, and Azov (1736–38), won a major victory at Stavuchany near Khotin in northern Bessarabia (1739), and earned a reputation for being an outstanding military leader.

      At the conclusion of the war (September 1739), he returned to St. Petersburg and resumed his influential position in the government. But when Anna died (Oct. 17 [Oct. 28], 1740), leaving her throne to her infant grandnephew Ivan VI and naming her favourite and chief adviser Ernst Johann Biron as regent, Münnich feared that Biron's widespread unpopularity would cause the entire ruling German clique to lose power. He, therefore, arrested Biron in the middle of the night of Nov. 8–9 (Nov. 19–20), 1740, and sent him to Siberia. Münnich made Ivan's mother, Anna Leopoldovna, regent and personally assumed the role of first minister. A year later, however, he and Anna Leopoldovna were deposed by Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, and Münnich was exiled to Siberia. After Peter III released him in 1762, he served Catherine II the Great as director general of the Baltic ports.

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Universalium. 2010.

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