Müller, Paul Hermann


Müller, Paul Hermann

▪ Swiss chemist
born Jan. 12, 1899, Olten, Switz.
died Oct. 12, 1965, Basel
 Swiss chemist who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1948 for discovering the potent toxic effects on insects of DDT. With its chemical derivatives, DDT became the most widely used insecticide for more than 20 years and was a major factor in increased world food production and the suppression of insect-borne diseases.

      A research chemist at the J.R. Geigy Company, Basel (1925–65), Müller began his career with investigations of dyes and tanning agents. In 1935 he began his search for an “ideal” insecticide, one that would show rapid, potent toxicity for the greatest number of insect species but would cause little or no damage to plants and warm-blooded animals. He also required that it have a high degree of chemical stability, so that its effect would persist for long periods of time and its manufacture would be economical. Four years later Müller tested a substance known as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and found that it satisfied these requirements. The German chemist Othmar Zeidler had first synthesized the compound in 1874 but had failed to realize its value as an insecticide.

      In 1939 DDT was tested successfully against the Colorado potato beetle by the Swiss government and by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1943. In January 1944 DDT was used to quash an outbreak of typhus carried by lice in Naples, the first time a winter typhus epidemic had been stopped.

      Although Müller had required his ideal insecticide to be relatively nontoxic to warm-blooded animals, the widespread use and persistence of DDT (in 1968 it was estimated that 1,000,000,000 pounds [453,000,000 kg] of the substance remained in the environment) made it a hazard to animal life, and it showed signs of disrupting ecological food chains. By 1970 DDT was rapidly being supplanted by more quickly degraded, less toxic agents; its use was banned in a number of countries.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • MULLER Paul Hermann — (1899 1965) (retrato) [véase http://www.iqb.es/diccio/m/mu.htm#mullerp]: Químico suizo descubridor del DDT, el primer insecticida eficaz que permitió erradicar la malaria de muchas zonas Diccionario ilustrado de Términos Médicos.. Alvaro Galiano …   Diccionario médico

  • Müller , Paul Hermann — (1899–1965) Swiss chemist Müller, who was born in Olten, Switzerland, was educated at the University of Basel where he obtained his PhD in 1925. From then until 1961 when he retired Müller worked for the Swiss dye firm of J.R. Geigy as a research …   Scientists

  • Paul Hermann Muller — Paul Hermann Müller Pour les articles homonymes, voir Müller. Paul Hermann Müller (né le 12 janvier 1899 à Olten et décédé le 12 octobre 1965 à Bâle) était un chimiste suisse, découvreur en 1939 de l efficacité du DDT… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Paul Hermann Müller — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Müller. Paul Hermann Müller (12 janvier 1899 à Olten, Suisse 12 octobre 1965 à Bâle, Suisse) est un chimiste suisse, lauréat du prix Nobel de physiologie ou médecine de 1948 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Paul Hermann Müller — (* 12. Januar 1899 in Olten/Solothurn; † 12. Oktober 1965 in Basel) war ein Schweizer Chemiker. Paul Hermann Müllers Vater war als Kaufmann bei der Schweizer Bahn angestellt. Seine frühe Kindheit verbrachte er in Lenzburg (Kanton Aargau), bevor… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Paul Hermann Müller — (12 de enero, de 1899 – 12 de octubre, de 1965) fue un químico suizo y ganador en 1948 del Premio Nobel de Fisiología o Medicina por su descubrimiento del DDT como un insecticida usado en el control de la malaria, fiebre amarilla, y muchas otras… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Paul Hermann Müller — Infobox Scientist name = Paul Hermann Müller image size = 150px birth date = January 12, 1899 birth place = Olten, Solothurn, Switzerland death date = death date and age|1965|10|12|1899|01|12|df=yes death place = Basel, Switzerland nationality =… …   Wikipedia

  • Paul Hermann Muller — noun Swiss chemist who synthesized DDT and discovered its use as an insecticide (1899 1965) • Syn: ↑Muller • Instance Hypernyms: ↑chemist …   Useful english dictionary

  • Medizinnobelpreis 1948: Paul Hermann Müller —   Der schweizerische Chemiker erhielt den Nobelpreis für die Entdeckung der »Wirkung des DDT als Kontaktgift gegen verschiedene Arthropoden«.    Biografie   Paul Hermann Müller, * Olten (Kanton Solothurn) 12. 1. 1899, ✝ Basel 13. 10. 1965; 1919… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Paul H. Müller — Paul Hermann Müller (* 12. Januar 1899 in Olten/Solothurn; † 12. Oktober 1965 in Basel) war ein Schweizer Chemiker. Paul Hermann Müllers Vater war als Kaufmann bei der Schweizer Bahn angestellt. Seine frühe Kindheit verbrachte er in Lenzburg… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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