Muʿizz-ud-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām


Muʿizz-ud-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām

▪ Ghūrid ruler of India
Arabic  Muʿizz Ad-dīn Muḥammad Ibn Sām,  also called  Muḥammad Ghūrī, or Shihāb-ud-dīn Muḥammad Ghūrī 
died March 15, 1206, Damyak, India

      the Ghūrid conqueror of the north Indian plain; he was one of the founders of Muslim rule in India.

      Muʿizz-ud-Dīn's elder brother, Ghiyāṣ-ud-Dīn, acquired power east of Herāt in the region of Ghūr (Ghowr, in present Afghanistan) c. 1162. Muʿizz-ud-Dīn always remained his brother's loyal subordinate. Thus Muʿizz-ud-Dīn expelled the Oğuz Turkmen nomads from Ghazna ( Ghaznī) in 1173 and came as required to his brother's assistance in his contest with Khwārezm for the lordship of Khorāsān.

      After Ghiyāṣ-ud-Dīn's death in 1202, the rivalry between the two powers came to a head with Muʿizz-ud-Dīn's attack in 1204 on the Khwārezmian capital, Gurganj (in present Uzbekistan). In Hindustān, Muʿizz-ud-Dīn captured Multān and Uch in 1175 and annexed the Ghaznavid principality of Lahore in 1186. After being defeated by a coalition of Rājput kings at Tarāorī (see Tarāorī, Battles of) in 1191, he returned the next year with an army of mounted archers and won a great victory over them on the same field, opening the way for his lieutenants to occupy most of northern India in the years that followed. Muʿizz-ud-Dīn was assassinated, according to some, by Hindu Khokars, according to others by Ismāʿīlīs. See also Delhi sultanate.

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Universalium. 2010.

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