London, Fritz Wolfgang


London, Fritz Wolfgang

▪ American physicist
born March 7, 1900, Breslau, Ger. [now Wrocław, Pol.]
died March 30, 1954, Durham, N.C., U.S.

      German American physicist who did pioneering work in quantum chemistry and on macroscopic quantum phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity.

      London received his doctorate in philosophy (1921) from the University of Munich before switching in 1925 to study theoretical physics with Arnold Sommerfeld (Sommerfeld, Arnold). He subsequently worked with Erwin Schrödinger (Schrödinger, Erwin) at the University of Zürich and at the University of Berlin, where, as a Jew, he was dismissed from lecturing after the Nazis came to power in 1933. After several years at the University of Oxford in England and the Institut Henri Poincaré in Paris, he moved to the United States in 1939 to become a professor of chemistry (from 1949 also a joint appointment in physics) at Duke University, Durham, N.C. He became a U.S. citizen in 1945.

      In 1927, together with the German Irish physicist Walter Heitler, London published the first quantum mechanical (quantum mechanics) explanation of the molecular bond in hydrogen molecules and worked further to found chemistry upon quantum mechanics. (The London force is named after him. See van der Waals forces.) He then attacked the low-temperature phenomena of superconductivity and superfluidity, which he understood as macroscopic quantum effects. With his brother, Heinz London, he developed the first successful phenomenological theory (1935) of superconductivity, which crucially depends on the existence of an energy gap in electron states. London also suggested that Bose-Einstein condensation (Bose-Einstein condensate) is responsible for superfluidity and predicted the quantization of magnetic flux.

Alexei Kojevnikov
 

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Fritz Wolfgang London — (* 7. März 1900 in Breslau; † 30. März 1954 in Durham, North Carolina, USA) war ein deutsch amerikanischer Physiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werk 3 Wirkung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fritz Wolfgang London — Fritz London Fritz Wolfgang London (7 mars 1900 – 30 mars 1954) était un physicien théoricien allemand et américain connu pour son application de la mécanique quantique aux problèmes chimiques. Les forces de London ont été ainsi baptisées en son… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Fritz London — Para otros usos de este término, véase London. Fritz Wolfgang London Fritz London (1928) Nacimiento 7 de marzo, 1900 Breslau, Alemania …   Wikipedia Español

  • Fritz London — Fritz London, München 1928 Fritz Wolfgang London (* 7. März 1900 in Breslau; † 30. März 1954 in Durham, North Carolina, USA) war ein deutsch amerikanischer Physiker. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Fritz London — en 1928 au Congrès Bunsen de Munich Fritz Wolfgang London (7 mars 1900 – 30 mars 1954) était un physicien théoricien allemand et américain connu pour son application de la mécanique quantique aux problèmes chimiques. Les forces de London ont été… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • London — puede significar: Contenido 1 Geografía 1.1  Reino Unido 1.2  Canadá 1.3  Estados Unidos …   Wikipedia Español

  • Fritz London — Infobox Scientist name = Fritz Wolfgang London box width = image width = caption = birth date = March 7, 1900 birth place = Breslau, Germany death date = March 30, 1954 death place = Durham, North Carolina residence = USA citizenship = German,… …   Wikipedia

  • london forces — noun plural Usage: usually capitalized L Etymology: after Fritz Wolfgang London died 1954 American physicist born in Germany : nonchemical interactions between atoms or molecules * * * Physics, Chem. forces between atoms or molecules that are… …   Useful english dictionary

  • London — Lọn|don: Hauptstadt von Großbritannien und Nordirland u. von England. * * * I Lọndon   [englisch lʌndən],    1) Hauptstadt des Vereinigten Königreichs von Großbritannien und Nordirland, im Süden Englands, mit (1994) 6,97 Mio. Einwohnern und 1… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • London forces — Physics, Chem. forces between atoms or molecules that are related to the physical rather than the chemical properties of the molecules and that are attractive when the particles are in the lowest energy state. [after Fritz Wolfgang London (1900… …   Universalium


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