Lax, Peter

Lax, Peter

▪ Hungarian-American mathematician
born May 1, 1926, Budapest, Hung.
 
 Hungarian-born American mathematician awarded the 2005 Abel Prize “for his groundbreaking contributions to the theory and applications of partial differential equations and to the computation of their solutions.”

      With help from the local American consul, Lax's Jewish family left Hungary in November 1941 and sailed from Lisbon for the United States on Dec. 5, 1941, two days before the Pearl Harbor attack brought the United States into World War II. Although technically enemy aliens on their arrival, the Lax family were soon settled in New York City, and the great Hungarian-born American mathematician John von Neumann (von Neumann, John) took a personal interest in the mathematically talented son. Peter Lax was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1944, and, after some training at Texas A&M University, he was assigned (1945–46) to the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos, N.M. After the war, he earned a bachelor's degree (1947) and doctorate (1949) from New York University (NYU). Lax returned to work at Los Alamos in 1950 before obtaining an assistant professorship in 1951 at NYU. He became a full professor in 1958, and, when the school's mathematics department became the core of the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in 1972, he became its first director. He retired in 1980.

      Partial differential equations (partial differential equation) are among the fundamental ways mathematicians and scientists describe natural and mathematical processes that depend on more than one variable. In the study of hyperbolic partial differential equations, Lax showed that there are many types of equations that do admit exact solutions, and, with American mathematician James Glimm, he made a profound analysis of the behaviour of solutions to these equations over long periods of time. Together with Robert D. Richtmeyer, a fellow mathematician at the Courant Institute, Lax showed that, in a wide class of cases, methods of numerical analysis give accurate solutions to the equations, and, in work with others (including the German-born American mathematician Kurt Friedrichs and American mathematician Burton Wendroff), he introduced new numerical methods for finding solutions.

      In the 1970s, Lax introduced the now-standard method of Lax pairs in the study of solitons, or isolated traveling waves, that leave particular quantities (akin to energy) invariant. He also took up the study of scattering, used by physicists to study crystal structures and by mathematicians working on the Schrödinger equation, and he developed a rich theory that has illuminated questions in number theory.

 In addition to winning the Abel Prize—awarded by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters in memory of the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel (Abel, Niels Henrik)—Lax was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1972) and has been awarded a U.S. National Medal of Science (1986), a Wolf Prize for Mathematics (1987), and a Steel Prize (1992).

Jeremy John Gray
 

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Peter Lax — Peter David Lax Peter Lax in Tokyo, 1969 Born 1 May 1926 ( …   Wikipedia

  • Peter David Lax — Peter Lax Peter David Lax (* 1. Mai 1926 in Budapest) ist ein ungarischer Mathematiker und Träger des Wolf Preises für Mathematik von 1987, sowie des Abelpreises 2005. Er arbeitet am Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences an der New York… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Peter Lax — Peter David Lax (* 1. Mai 1926 in Budapest) ist ein ungarischer Mathematiker und Träger des Wolf Preises für Mathematik von 1987, sowie des Abelpreises 2005. Er arbeitet am Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences an der New York University …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Peter Lax — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Peter Lax Peter David Lax (nacido el 1 de mayo de 1926, en Budapest, Hungría) es un matemático que trabaja en áreas de matemática pura y aplicada. Ha realizado importantes contribuciones a …   Wikipedia Español

  • Peter Lax — Peter Lax. Peter Lax est un mathématicien hongrois né en 1926 à Budapest et de nationalité américaine. Le prix Abel 2005 lui a été décerné. Né en Hongrie, il quitta le pays avec ses parents pour les États Unis en 1941. Il travailla sur le projet… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • LAX — ist: ein anderer Begriff für lässig, schlaff, gleichgültig (entlehnt aus dem Lateinischen: lax = schlaff, lässig, locker, lau) eine Gemeinde im Bezirk Goms des Kantons Wallis in der Schweiz, siehe Lax VS eine Schreibweise für den Ort La Crosse… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • LAX (disambiguation) — LAX or Lax may refer to:; Places :*Los Angeles International Airport (IATA: LAX), Los Angeles main airportLos Angeles International Airport (LAX) is the #1 international gateway to Asia/Pacific. LAX is served by nearly 90 passenger and cargo… …   Wikipedia

  • Lax — ist: ein anderer Begriff für lässig, schlaff, gleichgültig (entlehnt aus dem Lateinischen: lax = schlaff, lässig, locker, lau) eine Gemeinde im Bezirk Goms des Kantons Wallis in der Schweiz, siehe Lax VS eine Schreibweise für den Ort La Crosse… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Lax — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. {{{image}}}   Sigles d une seule lettre   Sigles de deux lettres > Sigles de trois lettres …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Lax Kw'alaams, British Columbia — Lax Kw alaams, usually called Port Simpson, is an Indigenous village community in British Columbia, Canada, not far from the city of Prince Rupert. It is the home of the Nine Tribes of the lower Skeena River, which are nine of the fourteen tribes …   Wikipedia


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»