Lambert, Johann Heinrich


Lambert, Johann Heinrich

▪ Swiss-German scientist and philosopher
born August 26, 1728, Mülhausen, Alsace
died September 25, 1777, Berlin, Prussia [Germany]
 Swiss German mathematician, astronomer, physicist, and philosopher who provided the first rigorous proof that π (pi) (the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter) is irrational, meaning that it cannot be expressed as the quotient of two integers.

      Lambert, the son of a tailor, was largely self-educated and early in his life began geometric and astronomical investigations by means of instruments he designed and built himself. He worked for a time as a bookkeeper, secretary, and editor. As a private tutor in 1748, he gained access to a good library, which he used for self-improvement until 1759, when he resigned his post to settle in Augsburg. In 1764 he went to Berlin, where he received the patronage of Frederick the Great (Frederick II). His memoir containing the proof that π is irrational was published in 1768. In 1774 at Berlin he became editor of Astronomisches Jahrbuch oder Ephemeriden, an astronomical almanac.

      Lambert made the first systematic development of hyperbolic functions. He is also responsible for many innovations in the study of heat and light. The lambert, a measurement of light intensity, was named in his honour. Among his most important works are Photometria (1760; “The Measurement of Light”); Die Theorie der Parallellinien (1766; “The Theory of Parallel Lines”), which contains results later included in non-Euclidean geometry; and Pyrometrie (1779; “The Measurement of Heat”). The Neues Organon (1764; “New Organon”), his principal philosophical work, contains an analysis of a great variety of questions, among them formal logic, probability (probability theory), and the principles of science (science, philosophy of). He also corresponded with Immanuel Kant (Kant, Immanuel), with whom he shares the honour of being among the first to recognize that spiral nebulae (nebula) are disk-shaped galaxies like the Milky Way (Milky Way Galaxy).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lambert , Johann Heinrich — (1728–1777) German mathematician, physicist, astronomer, and philosopher Lambert, the son of a poor tailor from Mulhouse (now in France), was largely self educated. He spent the early part of his life in various occupations, including teaching… …   Scientists

  • Lambert, Johann Heinrich — See Leibniz (from) to Kant …   History of philosophy

  • LAMBERT, JOHANN HEINRICH —    German philosopher and mathematician; was the successor and rival of Leibnitz in both regards, and was patronised by Frederick the Great (1619 1728) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Johann Heinrich Lambert — (* 26. August 1728 in Mülhausen (Elsass); † 25. September 1777 in Berlin) war ein schweizerisch elsässischer Mathematiker, Logiker, Physiker und Philosoph der Aufklärung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johann Heinrich Lambert — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Lambert. Johann Heinrich Lambert …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Johann Heinrich Lambert — (26 de agosto de 1728 25 de septiembre de 1777), fue un matemático, físico, astrónomo y filósofo alemán de origen francés. Nació en Mülhausen (ahora Mulhouse, Alsacia, Fra …   Wikipedia Español

  • Johann Heinrich Lambert — Infobox Scientist name = Johann Heinrich Lambert |200px image width = 200px caption = Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728 1777) birth date = 26 August, 1728 birth place = Mülhausen, Alsace, France death date = 25 September, 1777 death place = Berlin,… …   Wikipedia

  • Johann Heinrich Michels — (* getauft 20. Juni 1763 in Mülheim an der Ruhr; † 15. November 1823 ebenda) war ein deutscher Kaufmann, Reeder und Bürgermeister der Stadt Mülheim an der Ruhr von 1813 bis 1816. Leben Die Amtszeit von Michels war geprägt von den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Johann Heinrich Lambert — (28 de agosto, 1728 25 de septiembre 1777), fue un matemático , físico , astrónomo alemán de origen francés. Nació en Mülhausen (ahora Mulhouse, Alsacia, Francia). Murió en …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ламберт Johann — Heinrich — (Lambert, 1728 77) физик и философ; был академиком в Мюнхене и Берлине; философские воззрения его выработались под влиянием Вольфа, Мальбранша и Локка. После Kosmologische Briefe über die Einrichtung des Weltbaues (1761), Л. издал обширное… …   Энциклопедический словарь Ф.А. Брокгауза и И.А. Ефрона


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