- Kurbsky, Andrey Mikhaylovich, Prince
▪ Russian military commanderborn 1528, Russiadied 1583, Poland-LithuaniaRussian military commander who was a close associate and adviser to Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible of Russia during the 1540s and '50s.A member of the princely house of Smolensk-Yaroslavl, Kurbsky became attached to the special advisory council (Izbrannaya Rada, or “Chosen Council”), which Ivan formed in 1547 to assist him in the preparation of internal reforms and the formulation of foreign policy. At the age of 21, Kurbsky was appointed groom-in-waiting to the tsar and also began his military career, participating in the 1549 campaign against the khanate of Kazan. Although he was wounded while storming the city in 1552, he later took part in consolidating Russian power over the newly conquered Kazan (1553–56). During that period Kurbsky also became one of the tsar's intimate associates and in 1553 demonstrated his loyalty to Ivan, who was then seriously ill, by pledging to support Ivan's infant son Fyodor as heir, although many nobles refused to do so.In 1556 Kurbsky was promoted to the rank of boyar, the aristocratic order just below the rank of ruling princes. After fighting the Crimean Tatars in the south (1556), he was named by Ivan to be one of the Russian commanders in the campaign to conquer Livonia and was sent to the western frontier (1557). Although militarily successful, after 1563 Kurbsky lost Ivan's favour and was effectively confined to Dorpat (now Tartu). When Ivan failed to renew his appointment, Kurbsky fled (April 30, 1564) to the camp of King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland-Lithuania, who granted him large estates and gave him a commission in his army to fight Ivan (September 1564).Later Kurbsky defended the interests of the Orthodox population of Lithuania against encroachments from Catholics and Protestants. He also wrote religious works and an account of Ivan's reign (Istoriya o velikom knyaze moskovskom; “History of the Grand Duke of Muscovy”), in which he attacked Ivan's reign of terror. Kurbsky's letters are also interesting—the most famous being those he wrote to Ivan after his flight. From his correspondence it is evident that the Russian nobles—who until recently had been independent rulers of their principalities—found a spokesman in Kurbsky to voice their disapproval of Ivan's absolutist tendencies.
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Russian literature — Introduction the body of written works produced in the Russian language, beginning with the Christianization of Kievan Rus in the late 10th century. The unusual shape of Russian literary history has been the source of numerous… … Universalium
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