Joubert, Petrus Jacobus


Joubert, Petrus Jacobus

▪ South African politician
also called  Piet Joubert  
born Jan. 20, 1831, near Prince Albert, Cape Colony [now in South Africa]
died March 27, 1900, Pretoria, South African Republic
 associate and rival of Paul Kruger (Kruger, Paul) who served as commandant general and vice president of the South African Republic.

      Joubert was the son of an indigent farmer-missionary who trekked his family north to Natal in 1837. When his father died, the family settled on a farm (Rustfontein) in the Transvaal. With little formal schooling, Joubert educated himself and became a prosperous law and property agent. He began his public career in 1860 as a member of the Volksraad (parliament) and acted as vice president when President Thomas François Burgers visited Europe in 1875–76.

      The annexation of the Transvaal by the British in 1877 stirred the patriotism of Joubert. Determined to restore his nation's independence, he and Paul Kruger attempted to negotiate Boer differences with the British by meeting with various officials in South Africa and London. After seemingly exhausting peaceful means, the Boer leaders reluctantly proposed and advocated rebellion in December 1880. While Kruger devoted himself to political affairs, Joubert, as commandant general, led his burghers to victory at Laing's Nek, Ingogo, and Majuba Hill. He took part in negotiating the Pretoria Convention (1881), which restored the independence of the Transvaal.

      His more progressive views brought Joubert increasingly into conflict with Kruger, who defeated him decisively in the presidential election of 1883. As vice president and, therefore, acting president during Kruger's absence in London (September 1883 to July 1884), Joubert sought to extend the Transvaal's borders, but Kruger curbed his efforts. Differences between the two widened as Joubert allied himself with the English-speaking community and objected to the influence of Hollanders in Kruger's government. Three more times Joubert unsuccessfully ran for president against Kruger (1888, 1893, and 1898). He came closest in 1893, winning 7,246 votes to Kruger's 7,911.

      As war approached with Britain (the South African War, 1899–1902), Joubert advocated a policy of conciliation. Once the war began, he assumed command of the Republic's forces. Though a gallant soldier, Joubert was shortsighted in his preparations, and his extreme caution and inclination to fight a defensive war prevented him from exploiting initial Boer successes. In the middle of the conflict, he suddenly became ill and died.

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Universalium. 2010.

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