Jawa Barat


Jawa Barat

English  West Java 
 propinsi (province), western Java, Indonesia. It is bounded by Jawa Tengah (Central Java) province to the east, the Indian Ocean to the south, the Java Sea to the north, and the metropolitan capital district of Jakarta Raya to the northwest. The provincial capital of Jawa Barat is Bandung. In 2000 the western portion of the province was split off to form the separate province of Banten, with its capital at Sarang.

      The landscape of Jawa Barat is dominated by a chain of volcanoes, both active and extinct, that from west to east includes Mounts Sanggabuwana, Gede, Pangrango, Kendang, and Tjereme. The highest of these peaks rise to elevations of about 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). A series of these volcanoes cluster together to form a great tangle of upland that also includes the Priangar Plateau, which has an elevation of about 1,000 feet (300 metres) and consists of almost horizontal, gently folded limestone. The plateau extends for more than 100 miles (160 km) along the southern coast and fronts a relatively narrow strip of coastal lowlands. Along the northern shore of the province is a wider coastal plain of alluvium developed by the weathering of lava and ash into fertile soils; much of the province's population is concentrated here. The northern coastal lowlands are drained by the Manuk, Bekasi, and Berang rivers flowing into the Java Sea, and the southern coastal lowlands by the Wulan, Laki, Sadea, and Letuh rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean. Jawa Barat's original lowland forests have been entirely removed, leaving farmlands and patches of grassland, village woodlots, and scattered trees. The mountains and uplands have a dense growth of tropical rainforests comprising teak, sal (Shorea), eucalyptus, rhododendron, juniper, banyan, oak, ash, maple, and ironwood.

      Agriculture dominates the economy of the province, and cultivated lands are extensively irrigated and double cropped. Rice, sugarcane, corn (maize), cassava, peanuts (groundnuts), quinine (from cinchona bark), and tea are produced; rubber is grown at elevations of 300 to 1,500 feet (90 to 460 metres). The province's industrial products include textiles, processed food, wood carvings and furniture, paper, tanned goods, printing, chemicals, and the machinery for the manufacture of leather goods, metal goods, and transport equipment. A network of roads and railways links Bandung with Sukabumi, Bogor, and Cirebon as well as Jakarta and Serang. The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, followed by Sundanese and Badui, and almost all are Muslims. Ujung Kulon National Park, in southwestern Banten, is the last refuge of the endangered one-horned Java rhinoceros; it was designated a World Heritage site in 1991. Area Jawa Barat, 13,492 square miles (34,945 square km); Banten, 3,178 square miles (8,232 square km). Pop. (2000) Jawa Barat, 35,729,537; Banten, 8,098,780.

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Universalium. 2010.

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