Howard, Oliver O.


Howard, Oliver O.

▪ United States military officer
in full  Oliver Otis Howard  
born Nov. 8, 1830, Leeds, Maine, U.S.
died Oct. 26, 1909, Burlington, Vt.
 U.S. Union officer in the American Civil War (1861–65) who headed the Freedmen's Bureau (1865–72) to help rehabilitate former slaves during the period of Reconstruction.

      A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. (1854), Howard resigned his regular army commission at the beginning of the war to become colonel of a Maine volunteer regiment. He was given the rank of major general (1862) after fighting in Virginia at the First Battle of Bull Run, the Peninsular Campaign, the Battle of Fair Oaks (Seven Pines)—in which he lost his right arm—and at Antietam. He also took part in the Battle of Chancellorsville (May) and in the Tennessee and Atlanta campaigns (1863–64). Promoted to command the Army of the Tennessee (July 1864), he marched with General William T. Sherman through Georgia to the sea (November–December) and fought in the Carolinas campaign (early 1865).

      Unusually interested in the welfare of the nearly four million slaves who had been freed during the war, Howard was appointed by President Andrew Johnson as commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (the Freedmen's Bureau). Because he was not a skilled administrator, many abuses appeared in the bureau, much of the staff being poorly trained. Nevertheless, his agency fed millions of the indigent, built hospitals, provided direct medical aid, and negotiated thousands of labour contracts for the former slaves. Most important, it established a multitude of schools and training institutes for blacks; Howard University, Washington, D.C. (founded 1867), was named in recognition of his work in the bureau and as one of the university's founders. He served as the university's third president (1869–74), after which he resigned to return to military service.

      Howard fought against Indians in the West and served as superintendent at West Point (1880–82). He wrote several books on military history in addition to his autobiography, published in 1907.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Howard, Oliver O(tis) — born Nov. 8, 1830, Leeds, Maine, U.S. died Oct. 26, 1909, Burlington, Vt. U.S. Army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in the American Civil War as a major general of Maine volunteers, fighting at Bull Run, Antietam,… …   Universalium

  • Howard, Oliver O(tis) — (8 nov. 1830, Leeds, Maine, EE.UU.–26 oct. 1909, Burlington, Vt.). Oficial de ejército estadounidense. Egresó de West Point y prestó servicios en la guerra de Secesión con el grado de mayor general de voluntarios de Maine; combatió en Bull Run,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Oliver O. Howard — Oliver Otis Howard Portrait of Oliver O. Howard by Mathew Brady, during the Civil War Born November 8, 1830 …   Wikipedia

  • Oliver Otis Howard — Naissance 8 novembre 1830 Leeds (Maine) Décès 26 octobre 1909 (à 78 ans) Burlington (Vermont) Origine …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Oliver — Oliver, Joan Oliver, Joe Oliver, Miguel de los Santos * * * (as used in expressions) Cromwell, Oliver Davis, Benjamin O(liver), Jr. Ellsworth, Oliver Evans, Oliver Goldsmith …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Howard Sackler — Howard Oliver Sackler (December 19, 1929 – October 12, 1982), was an American screenwriter and playwright who is best known for writing The Great White Hope (play: 1967; film: 1970). The Great White Hope enjoyed both a successful run on Broadway… …   Wikipedia

  • Howard University — a university in Washington, DC, which was established in 1867 for freed slaves as well as white people, although few of the latter came. It is named after General Oliver O Howard, who helped to establish it and was its president (1869–73). * * *… …   Universalium

  • Oliver Howard — El General Oliver Howard. Oliver Otis Howard (8 de noviembre de 1830 26 de octubre de 1909) fue oficial de carrera del ejército de Estados Unidos de América y llegó al rango de general de la unión en la Guerra Civil Estadounidense. Tuvo la mala… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Howard — /how euhrd/, n. 1. Catherine, c1520 42, fifth wife of Henry VIII. 2. Sir Ebenezer, 1850 1928, English town planner. 3. Henry. See Surrey, Henry Howard, Earl of. 4. John Winston, born 1939, prime minister of Australia since 1996. 5. Leslie …   Universalium


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