▪ Myanmar government
      (Burmese: “Place of Release”), the primary ministerial council in Myanmar (Burma) from approximately the 13th to the 19th century. The Hlutdaw held executive and judicial authority and was the principal administrative organ of the king. It predominated over weak kings and was often overruled by strong ones. In practice, no act of state was valid unless sanctioned by and registered with the Hlutdaw. A record of its decisions was presented daily to the king for review; decisions were rarely overturned.

      Members of the Hlutdaw were known as wungyi, or “great burden bearers.” The wungyi accepted individual responsibility for administering the various functions of government that fell within their respective fields of competence, such as military ordnance and administration, public works, foreign relations, legal matters, and taxation. Despite such area specialization, departmentalization of the government was avoided because the council as a whole reviewed all important decisions. Each of the wungyi was assigned a wundauk (“support”), who supervised the daily agenda of the Hlutdaw, participated actively in its discussions, and submitted opinions for consideration by the wungyi.

      The authority of the Hlutdaw was effective and stable within the environs of the capital, but it lessened as the distance from the capital increased. The Hlutdaw appointed myowun, or governors, who functioned as an extension of the authority of the king and Hlutdaw.

      After the Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885), which subjugated all Burma to British sovereignty, the king was exiled and the Hlutdaw was dissolved.

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Universalium. 2010.