Harrison, Ross Granville

Harrison, Ross Granville

▪ American zoologist
born Jan. 13, 1870, Germantown, Pa., U.S.
died Sept. 30, 1959, New Haven, Conn.

      American zoologist who developed the first successful animal-tissue cultures and pioneered organ-transplantation techniques.

      During his first year as professor of comparative anatomy and biology at Yale (1907–38), where he also served as chairman of the zoology department, Harrison cultivated tadpole tissue and found that nerve fibres grew from it. He observed that the nerve-cell outgrowths display protoplasmic movement, settling a controversy concerning the formation and nature of nerve fibres. This observation constituted the foundation of modern nerve physiology and neurology, and his culture technique was to have vital biological applications, such as its use in cancer research and the development of polio vaccines.

      During this period he also invented devices for tissue grafting, allowing him to observe the effect of embryonic tissue transplants. In one such experiment he found that tissue from an amphibian embryo that would have formed a left limb formed a right limb if it was inverted and transferred to the embryo's right side. Harrison's discoveries not only established asymmetry rules for vertebrates and proved that the embryonic mid-layer, or mesoderm, gives rise to the animal's limbs, but also led to a great number of profitable experiments in embryology utilizing his methods. After his retirement from teaching, Harrison served as chairman of the National Research Council (1938–46).

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Harrison , Ross Granville — (1870–1959) American biologist and embryologist Born in Germantown, Philadelphia, Harrison graduated from Johns Hopkins University in 1889 and continued studying experimental embryology for the next ten years at Bryn Mawr College, Johns Hopkins… …   Scientists

  • Ross Granville Harrison — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Harrison. Ross Granville Harrison (1870 1959) était un biologiste et anatomiste américain. Il utilisa de nouvelles méthodes d investigation en cultivant des tissus en dehors du corps pour la première fois. Il… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ross Granville Harrison — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Ross Granville Harrison Nacimiento 13 de enero de 1870 Germantown (Philadelphia) Fallecimiento 30 de septiembre de 1959 New Haven …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ross Granville Harrison — Infobox Scientist name = Ross Granville Harrison box width = image width = caption = birth date = January 13 1870 birth place = Germantown, Pa., U.S. death date = September 30 1959 death place = New Haven, Conn residence = citizenship = American… …   Wikipedia

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  • Harrison —   [ hærɪsn],    1) Benjamin, 23. Präsident der USA (1889 93), * North Bend (Ohio) 20. 8. 1833, ✝ Indianapolis (Indiana) 13. 3. 1901, Enkel von 7); Rechtsanwalt, stieg im Sezessionskrieg zum Brigadegeneral der Union auf; 1881 Anwalt beim Obersten …   Universal-Lexikon

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  • Granville (CTA) — Granville 1119 West Granville Avenue Chicago, Illinois Localisation …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Edward Granville Browne — um 1900 Edward Granville Browne in persischer Trach …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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