fruit farming

fruit farming


      growing of fruit crops, including nuts, primarily for use as human food.

      The subject of fruit and nut production deals with intensive culture of perennial plants, the fruits of which have economic significance (a nut is a fruit, botanically). It is one part of the broad subject of horticulture, which also encompasses vegetable growing and production of ornamentals and flowers. This article places further arbitrary limitations in that it does not encompass a number of very important perennial fruit crops covered elsewhere, including vanilla, coffee, and the oil-producing tung tree and oil palm (see coffee, fat and oil processing , wine, and articles on individual plants [e.g., vanilla; tung tree; and oil palm]).

      Botanists (botany) define a fruit in broad terms as the fleshy or dry ripened ovary surrounding the seed of a plant. A pomologist, or specialist in the science and practice of fruit growing, defines it somewhat more narrowly as the fleshy edible part of a perennial plant associated with development of the flower. A nut is any seed or fruit consisting of a kernel, usually oily, surrounded by a hard or brittle shell. Most edible nuts—e.g., almond, walnut, cashew, pecan, pistachio, etc.—are well known as dessert nuts. Not all nuts are edible. Some, used as sources of oil or fat, may be regarded as oil seeds; others are used for ornament. The botanical definition of a nut, based on features of form and structure (morphology), is more restrictive: a hard, dry, one-celled, one-seeded fruit that does not split open at maturity. Among the nuts that fit both the botanical and popular conception are the acorn, chestnut, and filbert; other so-called nuts may be botanically a seed (Brazil nut), a legume (peanut [groundnut]), or a drupe (almond and coconut). In this article the term nut is used in its broadest sense unless otherwise indicated.

      This article treats the principles and practices of fruit cultivation. For a discussion of the processing of fruits, see the article food preservation; for information on their nutritive value, see nutrition, human.

      Improvements in technology and consolidation of the fruit and nut industries in the most favoured climates of the world have been responsible for a steady increase in yield. Thus, the total acreage or number of plants devoted to various fruit and nut crops has dropped, remained about the same, or not risen in proportion to the increase in the respective crop production.

      Although fruit- and nut-growing enterprises cover great ranges of climates and plant materials, their technologies have many common problems and practices. The most significant of these are discussed below.

The variety: its propagation and improvement
      The first step in establishing a fruit- or nut-growing industry is the selection of individual plants with high productivity and a superior product. Such an individual is a horticultural variety. If it is multiplied vegetatively from rooted cuttings, from root pieces that throw shoots, or by graftage, each plant in the group (called a clone) that results is identical with the others. Nearly all commercially important perennial fruit and nut crops are clonally propagated; i.e., their varieties are multiplied vegetatively by one means or another. Some nut crops, such as the wild pecan, cashew, black walnut, hickory, and chestnut still come from trees that grow at random from seed; hence, character and quality tend to vary.

      Many important varieties of fruit plants were selected generations ago. The Sultanina (Thompson Seedless) grape, the Lob Injir (Calimyrna) fig, and the Gros Michel banana have obscure origins; planted by the millions since selection, each specimen is actually a vegetative continuation of the selected individual growing on an independent root system. But regardless of the age of a fruit-growing industry, or the perfection of some of the selected varieties, a continuing search for new varieties is essential. There is always room for improvement in climatic adaptability, in insect and disease resistance, and in the solution of special horticultural or marketing problems. In fact, government experiment stations over the world now stress scientific breeding for improvement of market quality and yield of key fruit and nut crops.

      Not only are varietal selection and improvement a continuing need but so also is the maintenance of existing varieties. Although an improved vegetative mutation of a variety is exceptional, the opportunities for accidental multiplication of degenerate (low-quality) mutants increase in proportion to the number of specimens of the variety. As a result, care is taken to propagate a clone only from superior individuals, and in the case of Citrus, where mutation is especially common, further precautions are necessary. There are, of course, occasional mutations that may greatly improve a variety and these are sought, selected, and propagated.

      Vegetative propagation technique varies with the individual fruit plant. Date, banana, and pineapple are multiplied by use of offshoots or suckers. Grape, fig, olive, currant, and blueberry are usually propagated from cuttings. Strawberry and black raspberry reproduce vegetatively by special organs—the former by stolons or runners, the latter by cane tip rooting or layering. Many kinds of fruit trees must be grafted or budded on especially grown rootstocks because the species to be multiplied does not root itself easily; apple, pear, peach, mango, and citrus are examples of this group. Many nut trees have a single taproot with but few branching roots, necessitating a deep hole and special care in transplanting.

      Today's trend is toward a smaller tree in most fruit crops, particularly the apple and pear, and toward closer planting in hedgerow style, with carefully regulated fertilization and irrigation. This increases production per acre, lowers labour cost, increases early yields, and facilitates access in maintenance and harvesting. This approach, in fact, has been used for decades in Europe. Labour is the largest element of cost in fruit and nut production. Every means is exploited to reduce, facilitate, or eliminate hand labour.

      With most fruit species a period of one to two years intervenes between the time a cutting is rooted and the time the plant is ready for setting in the field, or between graftage or budding and field planting. During this interval the plants remain in a nursery where they can be given intensive culture in rows. Pineapple and banana planting materials, however, do not require nursery care before field planting.

      In choosing fruit varieties, the grower must (1) recognize the relative adaptabilities of available varieties to the climatic and soil conditions of his farm and (2) select a group that satisfies both his management needs and the market demands from those best adapted to his conditions. For instance, an apple producer in the northeastern U.S. may raise four varieties: Milton, McIntosh Red, Red Delicious, and Rome Beauty. The main harvest seasons for these succeed each other at two-week intervals; this helps him extend the harvest period and make efficient use of his labour. The first two varieties cross-fertilize satisfactorily, as do the last two. The first of these varieties is usually marketed without storage, while the storage seasons of the others are of increasing length. This helps the grower to extend his marketing period.


Site selection
      The site of a fruit-growing enterprise is as significant in determining its success as the varieties grown. In fact, variety and site together set a ceiling on the productivity and profit that can be realized under the best management. In most developed fruit regions microclimatic (microclimate) conditions (climate at plant height, as influenced by slight differences in soil, soil covering, and elevation) and soil conditions are the two components of a site that determine its desirability for a fruit-growing enterprise. Sometimes (particularly with highly perishable fruits) transportation to market must also be considered.

      Local conditions at a site that expose it to unusual frost hazard are as detrimental to citrus in Florida as they are to peach trees in New Zealand and apple trees in the south of England. In regions and sites where temperatures during the season may drop no more than a few degrees below freezing, artificial frost protection is sometimes used. This is accomplished by open-flame burning (petroleum bricks, logs, etc.) or heating of metal objects with oil, gas, propane, electricity, etc. (stones or stacks that radiate heat). Another technique is the spraying of water on plants (e.g., strawberries) as long as the temperature is below freezing.

      For highest productivity, most fruit trees must root extensively to a depth of three feet (one metre) or more. Heavy subsoil or other conditions causing imperfect internal drainage may result in shallow, weak root systems that do not take water and nutrients efficiently from the soil. In semi-arid and arid regions, accumulation of saline soils in a subsurface layer sometimes limits rooting of fruit trees, causes abnormal foliar symptoms, and reduces yields. Tiling and surface ditching help decrease water accumulation in poorly drained subsoils and reduce wet spots in otherwise satisfactory sites. Special control of irrigation procedures and periodic leaching may alleviate the worst salt effects in saline soils. Choice of tolerant species, varieties, and rootstocks may make fruit growing economical on imperfectly drained or mildly saline sites, though plants rarely perform as well as they do on sites free from these difficulties. Coconuts, however, tolerate saline soil conditions near tropical saltwater coasts.

      Once selected, a site is cleared, levelled (if needed), and cultivated. Then drainage, irrigation, and road systems are installed as required. In rolling or sloping terrain, where contour planting is needed to control erosion and conserve moisture, the locations of the plant or row positions are determined by the contour terraces and waterways established. In old lands, nematode or other pest populations make fumigation necessary before planting. In some problem California soils, giant plows and treaded tractors turn the soil to depths of three to six feet (one to two metres). In very infertile sites, or sites where the physical condition of the surface soil is poor, it may be helpful to grow a succession of leguminous cover crops for a year or more before planting and/or apply a fertilizer containing major fertilizer elements (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sulfur) and all or certain trace elements (iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum) and lime, based on a soil test.

Planting and spacing systems
      Growth, flowering habits, and light requirements on the one hand, and management problems on the other, determine the most satisfactory planting plan for a fruit- and nut-growing enterprise. There is a trend toward use of dwarfing stocks, growth control chemicals, or closer planting and training, or all of them to get the highest yields and best operation efficiency possible on a unit of ground.

      Low-growing crops such as strawberry and pineapple are usually managed in beds containing several rows, or in less formal matted rows. In an acre of strawberries, 200,000 or more plants may occupy the matted rows. A pineapple plantation with two-row beds, having plants one foot (0.3 metre) apart in rows two feet (0.6 metre) apart totals 15,000 to 18,000 plants per acre (37,000 to 44,000 per hectare). With such dense populations, intense competition for light, water, and nutrients causes smaller average fruit size. Nevertheless, the total yield per unit of land is usually greater than it would be with lower plant numbers.

      The spacing of grapevines along a trellis row and of trees planted in hedgerows involves the same group of problems. Maximum vineyard production frequently results with vine distances of eight to nine feet (2.4 to 2.7 metres; 600 ± per acre [1,500 per hectare]). The trend for peach trees and spur-type apple strains is hedgerows 14 feet (4.2 metres) apart or closer, in rows 18 to 20 feet (5.4 to 6 metres) apart.

      With those species and varieties that require cross-pollination by insects, the planting plan must take those special needs into account. This is a problem with apple, pear, plum, and sweet cherry orchards. At least two varieties that cross-fertilize successfully must be planted in association with each other.

Training and pruning
      Pruning is the removal of parts of a plant to influence growth and fruitfulness. It is an important fruit-growing practice. Primary attention is given to form in the first few years after fruit trees or vines are planted. Form influences strength and longevity of the mature plant as well as efficiency of other fruit-growing practices; pruning for form is called training. As the plant approaches maximum fruitfulness and fills its allotted space, maintenance pruning for various purposes becomes increasingly important.

      The grape may be trained following one of two systems: (1) spur system, cutting growth of the previous season (canes) to short spurs, (2) long-cane system, permitting canes to remain relatively long. Whether a spur or long-cane system is followed depends on the flowering habit of the variety. Relatively small trees that respond favourably to severe annual pruning (e.g., the peach and Kadota fig) are usually trained to create an open-centred tree with a scaffold of four or five main branches that originate on a short trunk and branch a number of times to provide fruiting wood. Annual renewal pruning can be reasonably efficient under these circumstances. Larger trees that do not respond favourably to heavy annual pruning are trained best to a system that encourages the main leader branch to grow erect to a height of eight to 10 feet (2.4–3.0 metres), with four or five main lateral branches at intervals on its sides forming the scaffold that carries fruiting wood up and out; this is called a modified leader system. The central leader type of tree, with one main leader up through the centre and many side branches, is common for pear and apple planted in hedgerows, and possibly for other fruits and nuts as the close-planted hedgerow system is more widely adopted.

      The principal reasons for maintenance pruning are: (1) to permit efficient spraying and harvesting operations, (2) to maintain satisfactory light exposure for most of the leaves, and (3) to create a satisfactory balance between flowering and leaf surface.

      To reduce hand labour costs, larger commercial fruit growers use machine pruning on many types of fruits. Peach, apple, pear, and other fruits usually planted in hedgerows are mowed across the top and sides by machine, then thinned out as needed by a follow-up crew using pneumatic clippers and hand-powered saws, operating from hydraulically manipulated scaffolds or lifts of various types.

Soil management, irrigation, and fertilization

Soil management
      Two soil management practices (1) clean cultivation and chemical weed control or both and (2) permanent sod culture, illustrate contrasting purposes and effects. In clean cultivation or chemical weed control, the surface soil is stirred periodically throughout the year or a herbicide is used to kill vegetation that competes for nutrients, water, and light. Stirring increases the decomposition rate of soil organic matter and thereby releases nitrogen and other nutrients for use by the fruit crop. It may also provide some improvement in water penetration. On the other hand, laying bare the soil surface exposes it to erosion; destruction of organic matter eventually lowers fertility and causes soil structure to change from loose and friable to tight and compacted. Though sod culture minimizes the destructive processes and may permit a modest increase in fertility, the sod itself competes with fruit plants for water and nutrients and may even compete for light. As a result, permanent sod culture is practical only with tree crops that are normally rather low in vegetation, such as apple, pear, sweet cherry, nuts, and mango. Competition from established sod may be detrimental to vigorously growing fruit plants like grape, peach, and raspberry unless adequate fertilizer and water are supplied.

      Because each of these soil management systems has advantages and disadvantages, modifying or complementary practices are often used; for example, cover cropping, mulching, and chemical control of vegetation with or without strip sod in the row middles. In fact, the trend is toward mowed sod middles with strip chemical control under the trees and with overhead sprinklers during hot dry weather. Sprinklers not only provide water but tend to cool the plants and give fruit of better market quality without aggravating diseases. Cultivation combined with winter cover cropping has been used widely in grape, peach, cherry, bush fruit, and citrus plantings, as well as with other species. Mulching is the addition of undecomposed plant materials such as straw, hay, or processors' refuse to the soil under the plants. In orchards, mulching materials are most often applied under trees maintained in permanent sod. Strip in-row chemical control of vegetation in commercial fruit plantings has almost taken over as an economical and sound practice.

      In semi-arid and arid regions, irrigation is necessary. Probably the maximum demand occurs in date gardens, because they expose a large leaf surface the year around under conditions of high evaporation and practically no rainfall. Irrigation in humid climates is generally being provided increasingly during extended dry periods that occur at one time or another during most growing seasons. For example, large acreages of banana are irrigated on coastal lowlands of the torrid tropics where annual rainfall exceeds 60 inches (1,500 millimetres).

      Needs of perennial fruit plants for fertilizers (fertilizer) depend on the natural fertility of the soil supporting them and on their individual requirements. Of the essential elements, supplemental nitrogen is almost always needed; potassium supplements may be needed, even in some desert areas. Although strawberry, grape, peach, and a few other fruits have responded favourably to phosphorus, and although its application has been recommended, the phosphorus requirement of woody plants is low and deficiency is rather rare. Calcium deficiency may be more common than realized; lime is often desirable to reduce soil acidity and because of other indirect benefits. Inadequate magnesium in the soil has been noted by workers studying a wide range of fruit species. Of the trace elements, zinc, iron, and boron are most likely to be deficient, but copper, manganese, and molybdenum deficiencies also are being reported for some fruits in some regions. Iron deficiency is difficult to control in orchards where soils have high alkalinity. Granulated fertilizers in modern close-planted commercial orchards are usually broadcast by machine a month or two before growth starts. Additional nitrogen sometimes is applied in heavy crop years to apple, pear, and citrus.

Crop enhancement

      The stimulus of pollination, fertilization, and seed formation is needed to get good size, shape, and flavour of most of the fruits. (Banana, pineapple, and some citrus and fig varieties are exceptions.) Transfer of pollen from the anthers (male) to the stigmas (female) is accomplished in nature either by insects or by movement in air. It is common practice to bring beehives (bee) into the orchard during bloom. Rainy cold weather during bloom with little or no sunshine can deter activity of the honey bee (the key insect pollinator) and reduce fruit set appreciably. This is one of the main problems not fully solved by fruit researchers. Hand-pollination by daubing collected and preserved pollen onto the stigma (as is done with date palms) sometimes is practiced for other fruits, but this approach is not widespread.

      Removal of flowers or young fruit (thinning) is done to permit the remaining fruits to grow more rapidly and to prevent development of such a large crop that the plant is unable to flower and set a commercial crop the following year. Thinning is done by hand, mechanically, or chemically. With the date, the pistillate flower cluster is reduced in size at the time of hand-pollination. In the case of certain table grape varieties, some clusters are cut off. With the Thompson seedless grape, a combination of girdling the trunk bark and judicious application of gibberellin (growth regulating) sprays at blossoming gives excellent full bunches.

      Young peach fruits are thinned by striking the branches with a padded pole or by shaking the entire tree for a few seconds with a well-padded motor-driven shaker arm grasping the trunk. Hand thinning of young apple and peach fruits once was also a common practice, but because of the expense and difficulty, there has been increasing use of chemical sprays as a substitute. Two kinds of sprays are used: (1) mildly caustic sprays applied during bloom, such as Elgetol in arid regions, or (2) sprays of growth-regulating substances such as 3-CPA (2,3-chlorophenoxy propionamide) applied within a few weeks after bloom in areas with late frosts.

Pest control and preservation
      In many fruit enterprises, pest control is the most expensive and time-consuming growing practice. Where the concentration of fruit farms in an area warrants it, individual efforts are complemented by legislative measures including quarantine regulations to force removal of pest-laden, unattended orchards. Sometimes the most economical control procedure is biological in nature. There is increased research today to find and multiply parasites that kill fruit crop pests. Such biological methods are necessary as political pressures increase for banning DDT and other chemicals. Selection of varieties that are immune, resistant to attack, or tolerant to specific pests, is a biological control procedure also widely used. Chemical control procedures, however, are relied on most heavily. Air-blast spray or mist-application machinery covering 70 acres (28 hectares) of trees or more in a day is now in common use.

Harvesting and packing
      The proper time to remove a fruit from the tree or plant varies with each fruit and is governed by whether the product will be sold and consumed within hours, or stored for weeks, months, or even a year. Most fruits are harvested as close as possible to the time they are eaten. A few, of which banana and pear are outstanding examples, may be harvested while immature and still ripen satisfactorily. Orange, grapefruit, and some varieties of avocado may be “stored” on the tree for several months after they have attained good quality; this method cuts costs in handling and marketing.

      Many fruits, including apple, pear, orange, lemon, and grapefruit, may drop from the tree during the last part of the maturation period. Preharvest drop of these fruits can be delayed by application of dilute sprays of growth-regulating substances like naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The chemical spray Alar [N-(dimethylamino) succinamic acid] applied four to six weeks after bloom on apple not only reduces fruit drop at harvest but increases red colour, firmness, and return bloom the next year, in addition to other advantages.

      For the fresh market, most tree and bush fruits are still harvested by hand. For processing, drying, and occasionally for fresh market, mechanical motor-driven tree and bush shakers with appropriate catching belts, bins, pallets, and electric lifts reduce harvesting and handling labour. In years to come, machinery may make it possible to machine-harvest most fruits, with no more, and possibly less, damage than with hand picking.

      The public has become increasingly particular about the appearance and quality of the product (food) it buys. Hence, store managers and suppliers seek the best grades of fruits and nuts available, and growers make every effort to produce crops with attractive colour and smooth finish. Fruits are packed by government-controlled grades such as Fancy or Extra Fancy within given size limits and are so labelled on the carton or box, together with the source. Most fruits and nuts not meeting this standard of quality are processed or sent through channels using the lower grades and off sizes.

      Small packages (food preservation) of plastic foam or wood pulp base holding four to six fruits covered and heat sealed with polyethylene plastic film are popular. These are delivered to stores in corrugated cartons holding a few dozen packages. Citrus, apples, and whole nuts or kernels also are packaged in polyethylene bags and delivered in cartons. Loose fruit may be sold in cell cartons and tray packs consisting of stacked form-fitting pulp trays in a “bushel size” box. Every effort is made to eliminate bruising.

      Large truck-pulled containers with individually motor-driven refrigeration units, with or without controlled atmosphere (CO2-O2, to retard ripening), are loaded at the fruit source and trucked to their destination or are loaded on ships by derrick for overseas shipment. These sealed containers are also being used increasingly for bananas to reduce labour and handling and to deliver the product in better condition.

      Air shipment of “vine- and tree-ripe” fruit (strawberries, figs, sweet cherries, pineapples, avocados) to distances as far as from California to Europe in a day or less is becoming increasingly common with the much larger and faster cargo planes and reduced air-freight prices.

Postharvest physiology of fruits
      Fruit ripening is a form of senescence and signifies the final stage in fruit development. A fleshy fruit is the enlarged ovary of a flower (plant) (avocado) or additional floral parts such as in apple, pear, and pineapple. Usually fertilization, and sometimes pollination alone, stimulate the floral parts causing a rapid cell division that leads to differentiation and the formation of the fruit structure. During this stage fruits consist of small, young cells filled with protoplasm. When the young fruit has been stimulated, presumably by plant hormones that originate from the embryonic seeds, rapid cell expansion takes place. During this stage fruits gain rapidly in size and weight. The cells develop small cavities or spaces in their tissue (become vacuolated) and begin the process of foodstuff accumulation, which lends fruits their compositional diversity. Banana, apple, and date, for example, accumulate mainly carbohydrates. Avocado and olive store fatty materials. Important constituents of most fruits are organic acids such as malic acid, found in apple and pear; citric acid, found in citrus fruits and pineapple; and tartaric acid, found in grapes. Fruits are usually low in protein.

      After cell expansion has slowed and become nominal, fruits enter the stage of maturity and undergo preparation for ripening. Some crops, such as pear and avocado, are harvested at the so-called mature-green state and allowed to ripen afterward. Most fruits are at a stage of incipient ripening before they are picked. Ripening is marked by rapid and dramatic changes that give fruits their attractive and edible character. Some of the familiar changes are softening, which results from degradation of cell wall substances; disappearance of a green background, because of chlorophyll degradation (as in pear, apple, and banana); appearance of coloured (coloration) pigments such as the carotenoids—orange-yellow—and anthocyanins—red (as in orange, mango, and strawberry); a decrease in acidity and increase in the sugar content (orange, apple); and emission of the volatile substances that give many fruits their distinct aroma (as in banana, pear, and apple). In climacteric fruits (e.g., banana, pear, apple), ripening is accompanied by increased respiration. In nonclimacteric fruit (e.g., strawberry, cherry) this phenomenon does not occur.

      It is thought that the transition from the mature to the ripe stage is brought about by certain “ripening” enzymes (enzyme). Protein molecules act as catalysts. The activity of these enzymes leads first to various ripening reactions, and then to gradual deterioration of the fruit tissue..

      Because ripening leads to tissue breakdown, fruits are considered a highly perishable (food preservation) commodity. Different fruits have varying degrees of postharvest longevity. While strawberries last only a week to 10 days, for example, apples or lemons can be stored successfully for as long as several months.

      Postharvest life of fruits can be extended by refrigeration with or without a modified oxygen–carbon dioxide atmosphere. Most temperate-zone fruits can be held safely at 32° to 41° F (0° to 5° C), but many subtropical and tropical fruits, including lemon, avocado, banana, and mango, show signs of injury from being chilled in prolonged cold storage and consequently fail to ripen properly. Bananas do not tolerate temperatures below 53° F (12° C), while several avocado varieties can be stored at temperatures as low as 46° F (8° C).

      Fruit life can be extended further by both refrigeration and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage in which oxygen is kept at about 5 percent and carbon dioxide at 1 to 3 percent, while temperature is held at a level best suited to the particular fruit. So-called CA storage is common today for apples and pears and is being adapted to other fruits. Controlled atmosphere and refrigeration in conjunction with the removal of ethylene gas (which emanates from fruits and speeds ripening) helps slow the ripening process considerably. Golden Delicious apples and some pears are shipped in polyethylene containers in which a desirable, modified atmosphere is created by the respiring fruit.

      Drying is a standard practice for stabilizing the market movement of dates, figs, raisin grapes, prunes, and apricots. Canning is of paramount importance to the pineapple, peach, and pear industries (these fruits can be dried as well), and freezing is a means of stabilizing some of the most perishable fruits, including strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry.

      Nuts are susceptible to mold, souring, staleness, discoloration, and rancidity. Cured and dried nuts are kept in prolonged cold storage under controlled temperature and humidity levels. Nuts also are stored and sold in vacuum packs of carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere.

Waste materials, other uses
      Apple wood is excellent for fireplace use, and cherry and certain other fruit woods are used for the finest household furniture. The dried residue from processing apples (apple) and Citrus is made into feed for conditioning livestock for market, as are waste materials from many processed fruits. Apple pomace (waste material) is spread on the orchard floor with a manure spreader to help in soil conditioning and as a source of minerals.

      Nutshells have many uses. filbert shells are made into plywood, artificial wood, and linoleum; a mixture of shells with powdered coal and lignite makes cinder blocks; shells are used in making poisonous gases and gas masks, and as fuel and mulch. Cashew shell liquid, a skin irritant, is made into resins for varnishes; kills mosquito larvae; can be impregnated in wood as a varnish to preserve against insect attack; is used in automotive brake linings and clutch facings; is used as a laminating agent for paper, cloth, and glass fibres; and is used to treat cement floors and synthetic rubber to retard deterioration. Finely ground black-walnut-shell flour is used in plastic molding powder; as a glue extender; to prevent overheating of drills; to “sand”-blast jet engines; for polishing, burnishing, and deburring metal parts; for cleaning foundry molds; and to spray on tires for better traction. Pecan shells are used in place of gravel in cement walks and driveways; as fuel; as mulch and as a soil conditioner; in livestock bedding; as filler for fertilizers, feeds, etc.; in the manufacture of tanning agents, with charcoal and abrasives in hand soap; as a filler in plastic and veneer wood; and many of the same uses as black walnut shells. Some nutshells are made into beads, marbles, buttons, carving tools, ink, and ornament. The India clearing nut is cut open and rubbed on the inside of earthenware that will contain drinking water; the juice coagulates the water impurities which sink to the bottom. The nuts of the betel palm in the Far East and of the kola tree in West Africa are chewed for their stimulatory effects.

Norman F. Childers Ed.

Additional Reading
Fruit culture is presented in Norman Franklin Childers, Modern Fruit Science, 9th ed. (1983), a well-illustrated book on deciduous orchard and small fruit culture in the United States from planting to marketing, with extensive bibliographies; Steven Nagy and Philip E. Shaw, Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Composition, Properties, and Uses (1980); J.A. Samson, Tropical Fruits, 2nd ed. (1986); James S. Shoemaker, Small Fruit Culture, 5th ed. (1978), an in-depth culture and literature review of all important small fruits; Gene J. Galletta and David G. Himelrick (eds.), Small Fruit Crop Management (1990); Jasper Guy Woodroof, Tree Nuts: Production, Processing, Products, 2nd ed. (1979), a complete book on temperate and tropical nuts of economic importance; and Michael O'Brien, Burton F. Cargill, and Robert B. Fridley (eds.), Principles & Practices for Harvesting & Handling Fruits & Nuts (1983).Norman F. Childers Ed.

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Universalium. 2010.

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