Fraunhofer, Joseph von


Fraunhofer, Joseph von

▪ German physicist
born March 6, 1787, Straubing, Bavaria [Germany]
died June 7, 1826, Munich
 German physicist who first studied the dark lines of the Sun's spectrum, now known as Fraunhofer lines. He also was the first to use extensively the diffraction grating, a device that dispenses light in much the same way a prism does. His work set the stage for the development of spectroscopy.

      Fraunhofer worked as an optician at the Untzschneider Optical Institute at Benedictbeuern, near Munich, of which he became manager in 1818. While measuring the light-bending properties of various kinds of glass, he noticed dark lines in the light spectrum of a sodium flame, and he continued looking for such lines in the spectra of other elements. Fraunhofer plotted hundreds of spectral lines, and by measuring their wavelengths he found that the relative positions of the lines in the spectra of elements are constant, whether the spectra are produced by the direct rays of the Sun or by the reflected light of the Moon and planets, by a gas, or by a heated metal in the laboratory.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Fraunhofer, Joseph von — • Optician (1787 1826) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Fraunhofer, Joseph von     Joseph von Fraunhofer …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • FRAUNHOFER, JOSEPH VON —    German optician, born in Straubing, Bavaria; after serving an apprenticeship as a glass cutter in Münich, he rose to be manager of an optical institute there, and eventually attained to the position of professor in the Academy of Sciences; his …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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  • FRAUNHOFER (J. von) — FRAUNHOFER JOSEPH VON (1787 1826) Opticien et astronome allemand, né à Straubing, en Bavière, et mort à Munich. Directeur de l’Institut d’optique de Munich (1818), Fraunhofer fut un des fondateurs de la spectroscopie. Après avoir étudié la… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Joseph Von Fraunhofer — Joseph von Fraunhofer, opticien allemand Naissance 6 mars 1787 Straubing (Duché de Bavière) Décès …   Wikipédia en Français

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  • Joseph von fraunhofer — Joseph von Fraunhofer, opticien allemand Naissance 6 mars 1787 Straubing (Duché de Bavière) Décès …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph von Fraunhofer — Joseph von Fraunhofer. Joseph von Fraunhofer (Straubing, 6 de marzo de 1787 Múnich, 7 de junio de 1826) fue un astrónomo, óptico y físico alemán. El cráter Fraunhofer de la Luna fue llamado así en su honor. Como científico, ingeniero y… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joseph von Fraunhofer —     Joseph von Fraunhofer     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Joseph von Fraunhofer     Optician, b. at Straubing, Bavaria, 6 March, 1787; d. at Munich, 7 June, 1826. He was the tenth and last son of a poor glass grinder who was unable to give his boy… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Joseph von Fraunhofer — Joseph Fraunhofer, seit 1824 Ritter von Fraunhofer (* 6. März 1787 in Straubing; † 7. Juni 1826 in München) war ein deutscher Optiker und Physiker. Er begründete am Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts den wissenschaftlichen …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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