Franck, James


Franck, James

▪ German physicist
born Aug. 26, 1882, Hamburg, Ger.
died May 21, 1964, Göttingen, W.Ger.
 German-born American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1925 with Gustav Hertz (Hertz, Gustav) for research on the excitation and ionization of atoms by electron bombardment that verified the quantized nature of energy transfer.

      Franck studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin, received his doctorate from the latter in 1906, and served in the German army during World War I. He and Hertz performed their prizewinning work at the University of Berlin in 1912–14. They bombarded mercury atoms with electrons and traced the energy changes that resulted from the collisions. They found that electrons with insufficient velocity simply bounced off the mercury atoms, but that an electron with a higher velocity lost precisely 4.9 electronvolts of energy to an atom. If the electron had more than 4.9 volts of energy, the mercury atom still absorbed only that amount. The Franck-Hertz experiment gave proof of Niels Bohr's theory that an atom can absorb internal energy only in precise and definite amounts, or quanta.

      Franck was appointed professor of physics at the University of Göttingen in 1920. In protest against Nazi policies he resigned his post and went to Denmark (1933). Arriving in the United States in 1935, Franck was appointed professor at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and in 1938 became professor of physical chemistry at the University of Chicago.

      Franck's researches in the fields of photochemistry and atomic physics included determinations from molecular band spectra of the energy involved in the dissociation of molecules. During World War II he worked on the Manhattan Project, which developed the atomic bomb. Franck became a leader of those scientists in the Manhattan Project who sought to stop the bomb's use against Japan; they instead suggested that the bomb be exploded in an unpopulated area to demonstrate its power to the Japanese government.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • FRANCK, JAMES — (1882–1964), physicist and Nobel prize winner. Franck, who was born in Hamburg, studied chemistry at Heidelberg and Berlin. He then devoted himself mainly to physics. In 1920 he became a professor of experimental physics, directing the second… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Franck , James — (1882–1964) German–American physicist Franck, the son of a banker from Hamburg, was educated at Heidelberg and Berlin where he obtained his doctorate in 1906. After distinguished war service, in which he won two iron crosses, he was appointed to… …   Scientists

  • Franck, James — (1882 1964)    physicist; his investigations into energy transfer confirmed much of the foundation for modern atomic physics. Born in Hamburg, he studied in Heidelberg (1901 1902) and there formed a lifelong friendship with Max Born.* At Emil… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Franck, James — (1882–1964)    German physicist and Nobel laureate, 1925. A professor at the University of Gottingen, Franck collaborated with Gustave Hertz in the work on the structure of the atom that was to earn them the 1925 Nobel Prize in Physics.    After… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Franck, James — (1882 1964)    German scientist. He was professor at the University of Gottingen. He won the Nobel Prize in 1925. After Hitler s rise to power, he went to the US and taught at Johns Hopkins University and the University of Chicago. During World… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Franck, James — ► (1882 1964) Físico alemán. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1925, junto con G. Hertz, por el establecimiento de las leyes que rigen el choque de un electrón con un átomo …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Franck — James …   Scientists

  • James Franck — James Franck. James Franck (Hamburgo, Alemania, 26 de agosto de 1882 Gotinga, 21 de mayo de 1964) fue un físico alemán, ganador del Premio Nobel de Física en 1925 …   Wikipedia Español

  • Franck Ribery — Franck Ribéry Franck Ribéry …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Franck rybéry — Franck Ribéry Franck Ribéry …   Wikipédia en Français


We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.