Fourier, Charles


Fourier, Charles

▪ French philosopher
born , April 7, 1772, Besançon, Fr.
died Oct. 10, 1837, Paris
 French social theorist who advocated a reconstruction of society based on communal associations of producers known as phalanges (phalanxes). His system came to be known as Fourierism.

      While working as a clerk in Lyon, Fourier wrote his first major work, Théorie des quatre mouvements et des destinées générales (1808; The Social Destiny of Man; or, Theory of the Four Movements, 1857). He argued that a natural social order exists corresponding to Newton's ordering of the physical universe and that both evolved in eight ascending periods. In harmony, the highest stage, man's emotions would be freely expressed. That stage could be created, he contended, by dividing society into phalanges.

      The phalange, in Fourier's conception, was to be a cooperative agricultural community bearing responsibility for the social welfare of the individual, characterized by continual shifting of roles among its members. He felt that phalanges would distribute wealth more equitably than under capitalism and that they could be introduced into any political system, including a monarchy. The individual member of a phalange was to be rewarded on the basis of the total productivity of the phalange.

      After inheriting his mother's estate in 1812, Fourier was able to devote himself exclusively to writing and refined his theories in Traité de l'association agricole domestique (1822; “Treatise on Domestic Agricultural Association”) and Le Nouveau Monde industriel (1829–30; “The New Industrial World”). His emphasis on adapting society to human needs and on the wastefulness of the competitive capitalist system foreshadowed the ideas of Karl Marx.

      Cooperative settlements based on Fourier's ideas were started in France and especially the U.S., among which the best known were the short-lived Brook Farm in Massachusetts (1841–46) and the North American Phalanx at Red Bank, N.J.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Fourier, Charles — (1772 1837)    philosopher, economist    The son of a wealthy merchant, Charles Fourier was born in Besançon, where he also studied at the university. In 1799, he began to write on politics and economics, and his first large work, Théorie des… …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Fourier, Charles — (France)    Painter.    Source: Isabelle Azoulay, The new order of love: Charles Fourier, the unwavering dreamer of liberated passions, in Romantique: erotic art of the early nineteenth century (Bearsville, NY: Elephant & Mouse Editions): pp. 40… …   Dictionary of erotic artists: painters, sculptors, printmakers, graphic designers and illustrators

  • Fourier, Charles — ► (1772 1837) Sociólogo y reformador francés. Socialista utópico, defendió el trabajo y el amor libre y propugnó la creación de comunidades de producción (falansterios), en los que el individuo trabajaría según sus aptitudes y tomaría parte en su …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Charles Fourier — [ʃaʀl fuˈʀje] (* 7. April 1772 in Besançon; † 19. Oktober 1837 in Paris) war ein französischer Gesellschaftstheoretiker, ein Vertreter des Frühsozialismus und ein scharfer Kritiker des frühen …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Charles Fourier — François Maria Charles Fourier (Besanzón, 7 de abril de 1772 – París, 10 de octubre de 1837) fue un socialista francés de la primera parte del siglo XIX y uno de los padres del cooperativismo. Fourier fue un mordaz crítico de la economía y el …   Wikipedia Español

  • Fourier — Fourier, Charles Fourier, Jean B. Joseph * * * (as used in expressions) Fourier, (François Marie) Charles Fourier, (Jean Baptiste) Joseph, barón Fourier, serie de transformada de Fourier …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • FOURIER (C.) — FOURIER CHARLES (1772 1837) Né à Besançon dans un milieu aisé, Charles Fourier, après de sérieuses études, s’installe bientôt à Lyon, où la Révolution le ruine. Contraint à gagner sa vie, il exerce plusieurs métiers, dont celui de salarié du… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Fourier — (Charles) (1772 1837) philosophe et économiste français. Socialiste utopique, il dressa, de façon poétique et savoureuse, le plan d une cité harmonieuse (le phalanstère) où l homme s épanouirait dans le travail. Fourier (Joseph, baron) (1768… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Charles Sauria — né à Poligny le 25 avril 1812 et mort à Saint Lothain (Jura) le 22 août 1895, est un inventeur français. Il est le fils du général d Empire Jean Charles Sauriat. Biographie En 1831, alors …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Fourier [3] — Fourier, Charles, geb. 1772 zu Besançon, Kaufmann, jedoch niemals in einem selbstständigen Geschäfte, sondern Commis größerer Häuser, st. 10. October 1837. Er ist der Stifter eines nach ihm benannten socialistischen Systems, das wie alle… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


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