- Erikson, Erik H.
▪ American psychoanalystin full Erik Homburger Eriksonborn June 15, 1902, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.died May 12, 1994, Harwich, Mass., U.S.German-born American psychoanalyst whose writings on social psychology, individual identity, and the interactions of psychology with history, politics, and culture influenced professional approaches to psychosocial problems and attracted much popular interest.As a young man, Erikson attended art school and traveled around Europe. In 1927, when he was invited by the psychoanalyst Anna Freud (Freud, Anna) to teach art, history, and geography at a small private school in Vienna, he entered psychoanalysis with her and underwent training to become a psychoanalyst himself. He became interested in the treatment of children (child development) and published his first paper in 1930, before completing psychoanalytic training and being elected to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute in 1933. The same year, he emigrated to the United States, where he practiced child psychoanalysis in Boston and joined the faculty of the Harvard Medical School. He became interested in studying the way the ego, or consciousness, operates creatively in sane, well-ordered individuals.Erikson left Harvard in 1936 to join the Institute of Human Relations at Yale. Two years later he began his first studies of cultural influences on psychological development, working with Sioux Indian children at the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. These studies, and later work with the anthropologist Alfred Kroeber among the Yurok Indians of northern California, eventually contributed to Erikson's theory that all societies develop institutions to accommodate personality development but that the typical solutions to similar problems arrived at by different societies are different.Erikson moved his clinical practice to San Francisco in 1939 and became professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1942. During the 1940s he produced the essays that were collected in Childhood and Society (1950), the first major exposition of his views on psychosocial development. The evocative work was edited by his wife, Joan Serson Erikson. Erikson conceived eight stages of development, each confronting the individual with its own psychosocial demands, that continued into old age. Personality development, according to Erikson, takes place through a series of crises that must be overcome and internalized by the individual in preparation for the next developmental stage.Refusing to sign a loyalty oath required by the University of California in 1950, Erikson resigned his post and that year joined the Austen Riggs Center in Stockbridge, Mass. He then returned to Harvard as a lecturer and professor (1960–70) and professor emeritus (from 1970 until his death).In Young Man Luther (1958), Erikson combined his interest in history and psychoanalytic theory to examine how Martin Luther was able to break with the existing religious establishment to create a new way of looking at the world. Gandhi's Truth on the Origins of Militant Nonviolence (1969) also was a psychohistory. In the 1970s Erikson examined modern ethical and political problems, presenting his views in a collection of essays, Life History and the Historical Moment (1975), which links psychoanalysis to history, political science, philosophy, and theology. His later works include The Life Cycle Completed: A Review (1982) and Vital Involvement in Old Age (1986), written with his wife and Helen Q. Kivnik. A collection of papers, A Way of Looking at Things, edited by Stephen Schlein, appeared in 1987.
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См. также в других словарях:
Erikson, Erik — См. Erik Erikson. Diccionario Mosby Medicina, Enfermería y Ciencias de la Salud, Ediciones Hancourt, S.A. 1999 … Diccionario médico
Erikson, Erik — (1902–1994) A psychoanalyst who said that human development continues throughout life, Erikson was born out of wedlock in Frankfurt, Germany. He never knew his birth father, but when his mother, who was Danish, married pediatrician Theodor… … Historical dictionary of Psychiatry
Erikson, Erik — (b. 1902) American psychoanalyst. Erikson was born in Frankfurt am Main and was educated at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute and at Harvard University. Subsequently he taught at Yale, the University of California, the University of… … Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament
ERIKSON, ERIK HOMBERGER — (1902–1994), U.S. psychoanalyst. Born in Frankfurt, Germany, Erikson immigrated to the U.S. in 1933. He taught and did research at Harvard, Yale, and the University of California until 1951, when he joined the senior staff of the Austen Riggs… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Erikson, Erik Homburger — ▪ 1995 German born psychoanalyst (b. June 15, 1902, Frankfurt am Main, Germany d. May 12, 1994, Harwich, Mass.), profoundly influenced the study of human development with the 1950 publication of Childhood and Society, in which he divided… … Universalium
Erikson, Erik H(omburger) — born June 15, 1902, Frankfurt am Main, Ger. died May 12, 1994, Harwich, Mass., U.S. German U.S. psychoanalyst. Trained in Vienna by Anna Freud, in 1933 he immigrated to the U.S., where he practiced child psychoanalysis in Boston and joined the… … Universalium
Erikson, Erik H(omburger) — (15 jun. 1902, Francfort del Meno, Alemania–12 may. 1994, Harwich, Mass., EE.UU.). Psicoanalista estadounidense de origen alemán. Instruido por Anna Freud en Viena, en 1933 emigró a EE.UU., donde se desempeñó como psicoanalista infantil en Boston … Enciclopedia Universal
Erikson,Erik Homburger — Er·ik·son (ĕrʹĭk sən), Erik Homburger. 1902 1994. German born American psychoanalyst who proposed that people acquire mature psychosexual traits by overcoming a series of personal crises. His works include Childhood and Society (1950). * * * … Universalium
Эриксон Эрик / Erikson, Erik H. — (1902 1992). Эриксон известен своими трудами по психологии развития. Он придумал термин кризис идентичности и описал жизненный цикл человека в виде последовательности восьми возрастных стадий … Психологическая энциклопедия
Erik Erikson — Erik Homburger Erikson (* 15. Juni 1902 bei Frankfurt am Main; † 12. Mai 1994 in Harwich, Massachusetts, USA) war ein deutsch amerikanischer Psychoanalytiker und Vertreter der psychoanalytischen Ichpsychologie. Er gilt als Neofreudianer. Bekannt… … Deutsch Wikipedia