▪ former county, Scotland, United Kingdom
also called  Dumbartonshire,  Dunbarton , or  Dumbarton 

      historic county of west-central Scotland, northwest and northeast of Glasgow. It comprises two sections: the main body of the county in the west, extending along the north bank of the River Clyde from the outskirts of Glasgow to Loch Long, and a smaller detached area in the east surrounding the towns of Kirkintilloch and Cumbernauld. The larger western section is an area of steep hills descending to the shores of Loch Lomond, the River Clyde, Gare Loch, and Loch Long. The highest of these, northwest of Loch Lomond, is Ben Vorlich, with an elevation of 3,092 feet (942 metres). The eastern section lies on the lowland plain that extends between the River Clyde and the Firth of Forth. The council area of West Dunbartonshire lies entirely within the historic county of Dunbartonshire, as do parts of the council areas of North Lanarkshire (Motherwell and Wishaw), East Dunbartonshire, and Argyll and Bute.

      Prehistoric peoples left simple forts and tumuli, and there are several remains of the Antonine Wall, built between the Firth of Forth and the River Clyde. Other Roman relics were found at Duntocher, Cumbernauld, and elsewhere. The county formed part of the old Scottish territory of Lennox, which gave its name to the earldom created in 1174 by William the Lion and the dukedom conferred by Charles II on his natural son, Charles, duke of Richmond and Lennox. Robert the Bruce (Robert I) is said to have mustered his forces at Dullatur prior to the Battle of Bannockburn, and he died at Cardross Castle in 1329. The Covenanters (Covenanter), in their flight from the field of Kilsyth, where in 1645 Montrose had defeated them, made their way through the southern districts. The clans of Macgregor and Macfarlane made their home in the Highlands and raided their Lowland neighbours.

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Universalium. 2010.

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