Cyrus The Younger


Cyrus The Younger

▪ Persian prince

born after 423, BC
died 401, Cunaxa, Babylonia [now in Iraq]

      younger son of the Achaemenian king Darius II and his wife, Parysatis.

      Cyrus was the favourite of his mother, who hoped to secure the succession for him instead of her eldest son, Arsaces (Artaxerxes II). When Darius decided to continue the war against Athens and give support to the Spartans, Parysatis persuaded him to appoint the young Cyrus as satrap (governor) of Lydia, Phrygia, and Cappadocia and commander in chief of the Achaemenian forces in Asia Minor (407). Cyrus' friendly alliance with Lysander, the commander of the Spartan fleet, assured Sparta of victory.

      In 405 Cyrus was called to his father's deathbed, and in 404, when Arsaces became king as Artaxerxes II, Cyrus was accused by Tissaphernes, satrap of Caria, of plotting his brother's murder. On the intercession of Parysatis, however, Cyrus was pardoned and sent back to his satrapy. On his return, Cyrus began preparations to seize the throne. He used a quarrel with Tissaphernes over the Ionian cities as a pretext for gathering a large army and also pretended to prepare an expedition to Pisidia, in the Taurus Mountains. In the spring of 401 Cyrus started out with about 20,000 men, many of whom were Greek mercenaries. When he reached the Euphrates River at Thapsacus, he announced that he was marching against Artaxerxes. He advanced unopposed into Babylonia; but Artaxerxes, warned at the last moment by Tissaphernes, was hastily gathering an army. The two forces met at the Battle of Cunaxa (Cunaxa, Battle of), north of Babylon, where Cyrus was slain. The Greek troops of Cyrus, after their commanders had been treacherously seized by Tissaphernes, forced their way to the Black Sea.

      The courage and ability of Cyrus were highly praised by the Greeks, especially by the historian Xenophon (one of the Greek mercenaries), who in his Anabasis wrote the history of the Greek retreat; but from the standpoint of the Achaemenians Cyrus was a traitor who, to gain his own ends, used hostile Greeks to attack the empire.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cyrus the Younger — Cyrus (Kuruš) the Younger, son of Darius II of Persia (Dārayavahuš) and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. The time of his birth is unknown, but he died in 401 B.C. The history of Cyrus and of the retreat of the Greeks is told by… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus the Younger — (ca. 424 b.c. 401 b.c.)    A Persian prince, the younger brother of King Artaxerxes II, who tried but failed to depose Artaxerxes, bringing about one of the greatest battles ever fought in Mesopotamia. The second son of King Darius II, Cyrus was… …   Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary

  • Cyrus the Younger — noun Persian prince who was defeated in battle by his brother Artaxerxes II (424 401 BC) • Syn: ↑Cyrus • Instance Hypernyms: ↑prince …   Useful english dictionary

  • Cyrus the Great in the Bible — The Cylinder confirms that Cyrus allowed captives in Babylon to return to their native lands, earning him an honored place in Judaism. Cyrus the Great figures in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) as the patron and deliverer of the Jews. He is… …   Wikipedia

  • Luis de Carabajal the younger — (d. December 8, 1596, Mexico City), son of Doña Francisca Nuñez de Carabajal and nephew of Luis de Carabajal y Cueva, governor of Nuevo León, was the first Jewish author in America. He was a Castilian by birth, and a resident of Mexico City; he… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus — is an English transliteration of the Persian name, Kourosh. For the etymology, see Cyrus (name). Contents 1 Persian Monarchy 2 Other persons named Cyrus 2.1 Given name …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus (name) — The four winged guardian figure of Cyrus the Great at Pasargadae on top of which inscribed in three languages the sentence I am Cyrus the king an Achaemenian Cyrus (pronounced /ˈsaɪrəs/) is the given name of a number of Persian kings. Most… …   Wikipedia

  • Cyrus — /ˈsaɪrəs/ (say suyruhs) noun 1. ( Cyrus the Elder , Cyrus the Great ), died 529 BC, king of Persia 558?–529 BC; founder of Persian Empire. 2. ( Cyrus the Younger ), died 401 BC, Persian satrap; led army (including 10 000 Greeks) against his… …   Australian English dictionary

  • The Ten Thousand —    A term commonly used both in ancient and modern times to describe the group of Greek mercenary soldiers who followed the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger in his bid to topple his brother, Artaxerxes II, from the throne. In 401 b.c. Cyrus and… …   Ancient Mesopotamia dictioary

  • Cyrus — noun Persian prince who was defeated in battle by his brother Artaxerxes II (424 401 BC) • Syn: ↑Cyrus the Younger • Instance Hypernyms: ↑prince …   Useful english dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.