Compton, Arthur Holly


Compton, Arthur Holly

▪ American physicist
born Sept. 10, 1892, Wooster, Ohio, U.S.
died March 15, 1962, Berkeley, Calif.

      American physicist and joint winner, with C.T.R. Wilson (Wilson, C.T.R.) of England, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1927 for his discovery and explanation of the change in the wavelength of X rays when they collide with electrons in metals. This so-called Compton effect (q.v.) is caused by the transfer of energy from a photon to an electron. Its discovery in 1922 confirmed the dual nature of electromagnetic radiation as both a wave and a particle.

      Compton, a younger brother of the physicist Karl T. Compton, received his doctorate from Princeton University in 1916 and became head of the department of physics at Washington University, St. Louis, in 1920. Compton's Nobel Prize–winning research focused on the strange phenomena that occur when beams of short-wavelength X rays are aimed at elements of low atomic weight. He discovered that some of the X rays scattered by the elements are of longer wavelength than they were before being scattered. This result is contrary to the laws of classical physics, which could not explain why the scattering of a wave should increase its wavelength. Compton initially theorized that the size and shape of electrons in the target atoms could account for the change in the X rays' wavelength. In 1922, however, he concluded that Einstein's quantum theory, which argued that light consists of particles rather than waves, offered a better explanation of the effect. In his new model, Compton interpreted X rays as consisting of particles, or “photons,” as he called them. He argued that an X-ray photon can collide with an electron of a carbon atom; when this happens, the photon transfers some of its energy to the electron and then continues on with diminished energy and a longer wavelength than it had before. Compton's interpretation provided the first widely accepted experimental evidence that electromagnetic radiation can exhibit both particle and wave behaviour, and thus helped to establish the legitimacy of the still-radical quantum theory.

      From 1923 to 1945 Compton was a professor of physics at the University of Chicago. In 1941 he was chairman of the committee of the National Academy of Sciences that studied the military potential of atomic energy. In this capacity he was instrumental, with the physicist Ernest O. Lawrence, in initiating the Manhattan Project, which created the first atomic bomb. From 1942 to 1945 he was director of the Metallurgical Laboratory at the University of Chicago, which developed the first self-sustaining atomic chain reaction and paved the way for controlled release of nuclear energy. He became chancellor of Washington University in 1945 and was professor of natural history there from 1953 until 1961.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Compton,Arthur Holly — Compton, Arthur Holly. 1892 1962. American physicist. He shared a 1927 Nobel Prize for his discovery of the Compton effect. * * * …   Universalium

  • Compton , Arthur Holly — (1892–1962) American physicist Compton came from a distinguished intellectual family in Wooster, Ohio. His father, Elias, was a professor of philosophy at Wooster College while his brother, Karl, also a physicist, became president of the… …   Scientists

  • Compton, Arthur (Holly) — born Sept. 10, 1892, Wooster, Ohio, U.S. died March 15, 1962, Berkeley, Calif. U.S. physicist. He taught at the University of Chicago (1923–45) and later served as chancellor (1945–54) and professor (1953–61) at Washington University. He is best… …   Universalium

  • Compton, Arthur Holly — ► (1892 1962) Físico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Física en 1927, compartido con Ch. T. R. Wilson por el descubrimiento del efecto Compton …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Compton, Arthur (Holly) — (10 sep. 1892, Wooster, Ohio, EE.UU.–15 mar. 1962, Berkeley, Cal.). Físico estadounidense. Enseñó en la Universidad de Chicago (1923.–45) y más tarde se desempeñó como rector (1945.–54) y profesor (1953.–61) en la Washington University. Es… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Arthur Holly Compton — Arthur Holly Compton. Arthur Holly Compton (* 10. September 1892 in Wooster, Ohio; † 15. März 1962 in Berkeley, Kalifornien) war ein US amerikanischer Physiker und Nobelpreisträger …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Arthur Holly Compton — Arthur Compton Pour les articles homonymes, voir Compton. Arthur Holly Compton. Arthur Holly Compton (né le 10 septembre 1892 à Wooster (Ohio) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Arthur Holly Compton — noun United States physicist noted for research on x rays and gamma rays and nuclear energy; his observation that X rays behave like miniature bowling balls in their interactions with electrons provided evidence for the quantal nature of light… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Physiknobelpreis 1927: Arthur Holly Compton — Charles Thomson Rees Wilson —   Der Amerikaner wurde ausgezeichnet für die Entdeckung des nach ihm benannten Effekts, der Schotte für seine Methode, die Bahnen elektrisch geladener Teilchen durch Kondensation von Wasserdampf sichtbar zu mac …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Compton — Arthur Holly …   Scientists


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