Chevron Corporation

Chevron Corporation

▪ American corporation
also known as  (1906–11) Standard Oil Company (California) ,  (1911–26) Standard Oil Co. (California) , and  (1926–84) Standard Oil Company of California (Socal) 

      former U.S. petroleum corporation that was founded through the 1906 merger of Iowa Standard and Pacific Oil Company. It acquired Texaco Inc. in 2001 to create ChevronTexaco Corporation.

      Chevron's origins trace back to 1879 with the founding of Pacific Coast Oil Company, which became California's major oil producer and refiner. In 1900 the Standard Oil Company (see Standard Oil Company and Trust) purchased Pacific Coast Oil and six years later combined it with its own West Coast marketing operations to form Standard Oil Company (California). In 1911, when the U.S. Supreme Court dissolved the giant New Jersey-based Standard Oil combine, the California-based company became an autonomous entity with its own oil fields, pipelines, tankers, refineries, and markets. In 1926 it acquired the properties of Pacific Oil Company (previously owned by Southern Pacific Railroad). Soon pipelines and refineries extended from California to Texas.

      Company geologists discovered vast quantities of oil in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia in the early 1930s, and in 1936 a marketing enterprise was formed—the Caltex group of companies, owned jointly by Standard Oil of California and Texaco. In 1939 the California company began operations in Louisiana and later offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. Canadian production began in 1941. Subsidiaries and affiliates later were formed in Libya, Nigeria, Spain, Indonesia, and elsewhere. In 1961 the company purchased Standard Oil Company (Kentucky) and, through a consolidation of its oil and gas businesses, assumed the name Chevron U.S.A. Inc. in 1977. In one of the largest mergers of its time, Chevron acquired Gulf Oil Corporation in 1984. Following this merger, the renamed Chevron Corporation operated in more than 90 countries, either directly or through affiliates. The company engaged in all phases of petroleum operations, from exploration to marketing and research. It also produced asphalt and a wide range of chemicals and fertilizers.

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Universalium. 2010.

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