Chandra X-ray Observatory


Chandra X-ray Observatory

▪ United States satellite
 U.S. satellite, one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) fleet of “Great Observatories” satellites, which is designed to make high-resolution images of celestial X-ray sources. In operation since 1999, it is named in honour of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (Chandrasekhar, Subrahmanyan), a pioneer of the field of stellar evolution.

      Chandra was preceded by two X-ray satellites, the U.S. Einstein Observatory (1978–81) and the multinational Röntgensatellit (1990–99), which produced surveys across the entire sky of sources emitting at X-ray wavelengths. Chandra (originally known as the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility) was designed to study individual sources in detail. Following deployment by the space shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999, a solid-rocket stage boosted the observatory into a highly elliptical orbit with an apogee, or farthest position from Earth, of 140,000 km (87,000 miles) and a perigee, or closest position to Earth, of 10,000 km (6,200 miles) in order to remain above the worst interference by Earth's radiation and to provide long periods of uninterrupted study of almost any part of the sky.

      In effect, Chandra is to X-ray astronomy what the Hubble Space Telescope is to optical astronomy. It focuses X-rays using four pairs of nested iridium mirrors, with an aperture of 1.2 metres (4 feet) and a focal length of 10 metres (33 feet), and is capable of unprecedented spatial resolution. A transmission grating can be inserted into the optical path before the camera to create a high-resolution spectrum in the energy range of 0.07–10 keV (kiloelectron volts, or thousand electron volts (electron volt)) to investigate the characteristics of sources in this range and measure the temperatures, densities, and composition of the glowing plasma clouds that pervade space.

  Crab NebulaAs a “high-energy” facility, Chandra's primary focus is black holes (black hole), supernova remnants, starburst galaxies (galaxy), and the panoply of exotic objects at the farthest reaches of the universe. Much of a starburst galaxy's luminosity is produced outside of the core region, and Chandra found that these galaxies have a proportionally higher number of intermediate-size black holes that sink to the centre, where they merge with each other. In following up on the Hubble Space Telescope's “deep field” study of the earliest period of galaxy formation, Chandra found evidence that giant black holes were much more active in the past than now, so that after an initial period of extreme activity they appear to grow quiescent. (Supermassive black holes in the cores of galaxies are believed to have been responsible for the quasar phase of a galaxy's life.) By detecting emissions from infalling material, Chandra confirmed that there is a quiescent supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way Galaxy. In addition, Chandra found direct proof of the existence of dark matter (Cosmos) in the merging of two galaxy clusters in which the hot gas (which is ordinary visible matter) was slowed by the drag effect of one cluster passing through the other, whereas the mass was not, which showed that most of the mass is dark matter. Observations of four other galaxy clusters showed that dark energy, the dominant component of the universe, has not changed greatly over time, suggesting that the universe's expansion might continue indefinitely.

      Chandra was later complemented in December 1999 by Europe's X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton, named for Sir Isaac Newton (Newton, Sir Isaac)), which carries a cluster of coaligned X-ray telescopes, and in July 2005 by the joint U.S.-Japanese Suzaku satellite, which carries five X-ray telescopes. These later facilities have larger mirrors and are sensitive to higher energies, but, because there is an inherent trade-off in mirror design, their larger light-collecting area has been secured at the expense of higher-resolution imaging.

      Chandra is managed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is located at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass.

David M. Harland
 

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chandra X-ray Observatory — and Inertial Upper Stage sit inside the payload bay on Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS 93 General information …   Wikipedia

  • Chandra X-Ray Observatory — Röntgenteleskop Chandra (Illustration: MSFC/NASA) Funktionsweise des vierfach verschachtelten Wolter Teleskops (Illustration: NASA) Chandra (vollständiger Name …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Compton Gamma Ray Observatory — General information NSSDC ID 1991 027B Organization NASA …   Wikipedia

  • Compton Gamma Ray Observatory — Das Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) war ein Weltraumteleskop für Gammaastronomie. Der zunächst nur als Gamma Ray Observatory bezeichnete Satellit wurde mit der STS 37 Mission des Space Shuttle Atlantis am 5. April 1991 gestartet. Mit 17… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory — Vue d artiste du Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Caractéristiques Organisation NASA …   Wikipédia en Français

  • International X-ray Observatory — The International X ray Observatory (IXO) est un observatoire spatial à rayons X qui doit être développé par la NASA, l Agence spatiale européenne et la JAXA (agence spatiale japonaise). Il est prévu que IXO soit lancé en 2021. IXO doit remplacer …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gamma Ray Observatory — Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Das Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) war ein Weltraumteleskop für Gammaastronomie. Der zunächst nur als Gamma Ray Observatory bezeichnete Satellit wurde mit der STS 37 Mission des Space Shuttle Atlantis am 5.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chandra (télescope spatial) — Chandra Vue d artiste du télescope spatial Chandra Caractéristiques Organisation …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chandra (Satellite) — Chandra (télescope spatial) Chandra Vue d artiste du télescope spatial Chandra Caractéristiques Organisation …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chandra (satellite) — Chandra (télescope spatial) Chandra Vue d artiste du télescope spatial Chandra Caractéristiques Organisation …   Wikipédia en Français


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.