Central Africa

Central Africa


      region of Africa that straddles the Equator and is drained largely by the Congo River system. It comprises, according to common definitions, the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa); Gabon is usually included along with the Central African Republic because of their common historical ties, both of these countries having once been part of French Equatorial Africa. Rwanda and Burundi, although they are located east of the East African Rift System, which forms the eastern divide of the Congo basin, are also often considered part of the region because of their long administrative connections with the former Belgian Congo (now Congo [Kinshasa]). The island republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, off the Atlantic coast of Gabon, is also included in the region.

      The landscapes of Central Africa are most often wide plateaus, which are smooth in the central part and etched at the periphery. The interior basin of the Congo River is joined to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow neck traversing ridges parallel to the coast. The basin contains some marshlands in the region where the Congo, Ubangi (Ubangi River), Likouala, and Sangha (Sangha River) rivers converge and where Lakes Mai-Ndombe (Mai-Ndombe, Lake) and Tumba (Tumba, Lake) are found. Its major part, however, consists of drier surfaces (low plateaus or alluvial terraces).

      Higher plateaus, which extend through older sedimentary strata around the centre of the Congo basin, reach an elevation of 2,600 to 3,000 feet (790 to 900 metres) north of Brazzaville and exceed 3,000 feet near the Angolan border to the south. In the north a low divide (2,000–2,300 feet [610–700 metres]) separates the Congo River and its tributaries from the Chad basin. The landscape beyond the divide descends by steps toward Lake Chad. Southwest and south of the Chaillu Massif (3,000–3,300 feet [900–1,005 metres]) in Gabon and Congo (Brazzaville) are ridges, traversed through deep and narrow gorges by the Kouilou and Congo. East of this complex the Congo River has eroded a broad basin, known as Malebo Pool, into the upper sedimentary strata before cutting rapids farther downstream.

      The most rugged terrain lies on the eastern fringe of the Congo basin. North of Lake Kivu (Kivu, Lake) and of Rwanda, the Virunga volcanoes (Virunga Mountains) form an east-west–trending range. The highest point in Central Africa, Margherita Peak (16,795 feet [5,119 metres]), whose summit bears residual features of glaciation, is located on the eastern fringe of the rift valley on the border of Congo (Kinshasa) and Uganda.

 The Congo River basin is second only to that of the Amazon in rate of flow. In the central part of the basin, the fan of quiet rivers constitutes one of the most attractive networks of navigable waters in the world, but this network is cut off from the Atlantic by a succession of rapids in western Congo (Kinshasa) between Kinshasa and Matadi. Downstream from Matadi the river becomes navigable again before entering its estuary. All the rivers in the region flow down through rapids or waterfalls from the peripheral plateaus to the central basin. The rivers of the western region are navigable for only a few miles from their estuaries, though the Ogooué, in Gabon, which lies in a wider sedimentary coastal basin, is navigable for more than 100 miles (160 km).

      Some parts of Central Africa lie within the Chad basin (northern Central African Republic) or the Nile basin (eastern Rwanda and northeastern Burundi, the Western Rift Valley north of the Virunga Mountains). Lava fields from the Virungas have blocked the outlet of an ancient hydrographic network previously oriented to the north. This created Lake Kivu (Kivu, Lake); its waters discharge to the south, through the Ruzizi (Rusizi) River gorge into Lake Tanganyika, one outlet of which links the lake with the Lualaba River and thus the Congo. The volcanic dam also caused a river course reversal in northern Rwanda, generating lakes and marshes.

      Central Africa is characterized by hot and wet climates on both sides of the Equator. The equatorial strip that extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Western Rift Valley is influenced throughout the year by the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), resulting in intense, heavy precipitation. The mean annual temperatures in the region vary from 77 to 82 °F (25 to 28 °C), and monthly means vary only a few degrees throughout the year. The diurnal range of about 20 °F (11 °C) always exceeds the range of monthly means. Annual rainfall exceeds 80 inches (2,000 mm) in coastal Gabon, in the centre of the Congo basin, and on the mountain summits bordering the Western Rift Valley. There is no serious dry season, but in the extreme east and west there are two months (July and August) of lower rainfall. North and south of the equatorial strip the dry season increases in severity with latitude. It is driest in the Northern Hemisphere in January (when the area receives dry Saharan air masses) and in the Southern Hemisphere in July; the season lasts nearly seven months in the far northern part of the Central African Republic and in far southern Congo (Kinshasa). Notwithstanding its low latitude and proximity to humid air masses, the coastal region of southwestern Central Africa has an abnormally long dry season with a low annual rainfall because of the presence of a cold marine current (the Benguela Current) along the coast. Highland areas tend to be wetter and cooler.

 Equatorial Central Africa is covered by an evergreen forest with an area of almost 400,000 square miles (1,035,920 square km). This rainforest (tropical rainforest)—an exuberant world of high trees, rich in epiphytes and lianas—takes three main forms: permanently wet marshy forests at the confluence of the Ubangi and Congo rivers; gallery forests, which are subject to periodic flooding, along banks and river floodplains; and, most extensive, forests of dry land, either featuring a single dominant species or, more often, harbouring a variety of species (sometimes several hundred per acre). This last type of forest is also found on the eastern slopes of the Congo basin, but it changes to high-altitude life-forms on the highlands of the Western Rift Valley.

      The rainforest is surrounded by a patchwork of savannas and other forests. Savannas of poor, permeable sandy soils unevenly strewn with small trees cover the plateau surfaces, whereas subequatorial forests fill the valleys. Large areas of the savanna probably were created by slash-and-burn agricultural techniques, through which the original forest was cleared and the resulting grasslands maintained by periodic bushfires. Savannas also border the cooler and drier Atlantic coast of the two Congo republics, while mangrove thickets stretch along the banks of nearby estuaries, lagoons, and deltas.

      Beyond this savanna forest region the most distinctive vegetal formation is the dry tropical forest (called miombo in the southeast). Its trees are smaller and less dense than those of the equatorial forest, and they are deciduous, losing their leaves during the dry season. The dry tropical forest covers the southern Kwango and Katanga (Shaba) plateaus in Congo (Kinshasa) but exists only in shreds north of the Equator, in the Central African Republic. In the far north the thorny steppe is a typical Sahelian landscape.

      With its steep gradients over short distances, rainy highlands, and relatively dry bottoms, the Western Rift Valley region is characterized by sharp vegetation contrasts. Central Africa's most famous national park, Virunga National Park in Congo (Kinshasa), is home to elephants, lions, hippopotamuses, warthogs, forest hogs, okapis, and mountain gorillas on the volcano slopes. Also in the same region is Kahuzi-Biega National Park, which features mountain gorillas. In savanna or wooded savanna regions are Garamba National Park in northeastern Congo, well known for its white rhinoceroses, Upemba National Park in southern Congo, parks in the northern part of the Central African Republic, and Akagera National Park in northeastern Rwanda. Other parks and reserves are located in the equatorial forest in Congo, such as Maiko (Maiko National Park) and Salonga (Salonga National Park) national parks.

      National borders have split the territory of many ethnic groups. Twa (Pygmies) are scattered in the forests from Cameroon to the mountains surrounding Lake Kivu. The Fang of Gabon also occupy Equatorial Guinea and southern Cameroon. The Teke are spread throughout Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, and Congo (Kinshasa). The Kongo inhabit western Congo (Kinshasa), western Congo (Brazzaville), and Angola; the Chokwe and the Lunda occupy Congo (Kinshasa) and Angola. In each country some major groups enjoy a numerically dominant position—for example, the Fang in Gabon and the Mboshi, Teke, and Kongo in Congo (Brazzaville). Burundi and Rwanda contain a Hutu majority, a Tutsi minority, and some Twa (Pygmies). In Congo (Kinshasa) the major groups are the Kongo (southwest), Mongo (central basin), Luba (south-central), Zande and Mangbetu (northeast), and Ngbaka (northwest). In the Central African Republic the Baya, in the west, are the most numerous, but the Banda, in the centre, occupy the largest territory. The islands of the Gulf of Guinea have a mixed population originating from Angola as well as from West and Central Africa because of their history as slave plantations and, later, as plantations with largely forced labour.

      Most languages spoken in Central Africa belong to the Bantu group of the Niger-Congo (Niger-Congo languages) language family. In northern Central Africa, Adamawa-Eastern and Sudanic languages are also spoken. The area's rich linguistic diversity includes the use of lingua francas born of local languages, pidgin creoles (in the islands of the Gulf of Guinea), and European languages, which are the official languages of the various countries (Portuguese in São Tomé and Príncipe, French elsewhere). These lingua francas often overlap borders. Lingala (Lingala language), which is important in Congo (Kinshasa), is also spoken in Congo (Brazzaville), as are Kongo and Sango, which in turn is the main language in the Central African Republic. Swahili (Swahili language), the eastern Africa language, is the lingua franca in eastern Congo (Kinshasa) and among the merchants of Burundi and Rwanda. In the latter countries Rundi and Rwanda (Rwanda language) are (along with French) the official languages.

      This article covers the history of the region from prehistoric time to the end of the colonial period in the 20th century. For the postcolonial history of the region, see Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville) (Congo), Congo (Kinshasa) (Congo), Gabon, Rwanda, and São Tomé and Príncipe. Area, 1,402,367 square miles (3,632,116 square km). Pop (2001 est.) 75,001,000.

Early society and economy
      The population of Central Africa has evolved in three broad time zones. During the earliest, which covered a million years, early humans sought food and shelter throughout the savanna regions and probably in the forest as well, though the forest may have been much thinner in the great dry phases of Africa's climatic history. In the second phase Homo sapiens (human being), modern man and woman, appeared in the region and absorbed or eclipsed the thinly scattered original inhabitants over a 100,000-year stretch. The third phase covered less than 10,000 years and brought the development of the societies that have become familiar to modern history. These societies arose from a blend of old populations familiar with the environment and new immigrants with fresh skills to impart.

Early toolmakers
      The oldest population of Central Africa is known almost exclusively from the evidence of its tools. Humankind had made a great intellectual step beyond its fellow primates by learning how to fashion and use tools of a regular form for a specific purpose. The most famous of the Paleolithic (Paleolithic Period) tools are the Acheulian (hand tool) knives, oddly known to scientists as “hand axes,” used to skin animals and cut meat into chunks that could be chewed raw. Those used in Central Africa bear an uncanny resemblance to those used in many other parts of the Old World, which suggests that learning was an intercontinental phenomenon, however slow the transfer of technology may have been. Some of the tools used in Central Africa bear marks of local specialization and adaptation, but Central Africa was broadly integrated into the culture of the Paleolithic Period.

      The middle phase of Central Africa's prehistory saw significant changes, but again the changes suggest that the region was linked to development in other parts of the world. The use of fire to roast vegetable foods as well as meats increased the range of diet and probably resulted in greater human health and fertility. The expanding population may have benefited from new skills in communication. The first use of language enabled societies to become more organized and efficient in their command of natural resources. Mobility in search of food was still the norm, but speech allowed the coordination of effort on a scale that animals could not achieve despite their powers of instinct. Tools became ever more varied, though the great majority were probably made of wood or vegetable and animal fibre and so have not survived in the archaeological record. The stone weapons, on the other hand, have survived and show a growing inventiveness among the scattered small bands of Central African peoples who survived for millennia in competition with their much fiercer and stronger animal neighbours.

The agricultural revolution
      About 10,000 years ago Central Africa began to undergo an economic revolution. It started in the north, where a new dry phase in the Earth's history forced people to make better use of a more limited part of their environment as the desert spread southward once more. Hunters who had roamed the savanna settled beside the rivers and perfected their skills as fishermen. Gatherers who had harvested wild grain on the plains settled beside lakes, where they could sow some of their gleanings as seed in the moist and fertile soils left by the waters that withdrew at the end of each wet season. The northern border of Central Africa became one of the cradles of the world's food-producing revolution.

      The first features of the new way of life in northern Central Africa were vegeculture and agriculture (agriculture, origins of). Vegeculture enabled people to collect wild plants on a more systematic basis and to protect the regions where wild tubers grew most plentifully. The regular harvesting of wild roots led to the perfection of specialized digging tools. Stone hoes were ground to a finer polish than the chipped cutting tools of an earlier age. Gradually women and men learned how to clear plots of fertile land and deliberately plant a piece of each root or tuber they ate to allow it to regenerate. They began to select the plant types that most readily lent themselves to domestication, to the ennoblement of regular crops, and to the development of agriculture. The white Guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata, was the basis of the new root farming, which enabled the population to grow in the northern savanna from about 5000 BC.

      The second phase of the local agricultural revolution was even more important and had an impact over a wide area of the tropical world. A type of cereal farming based on wild seed of the millet and sorghum families was first developed in the northern savanna. Millet farming became particularly successful in the tropics because, unlike wheat and barley, it did not require the long daylight hours of summer that occur in the temperate climes. Tropical cereals spread from Central Africa not only into West Africa but also eastward to India and eventually southward to Southern Africa.

      The third phase of the food-producing revolution brought an increase in the scale of food production and in its quality. The tending of trees and the gathering of fruit were probably as old as any other form of vegeculture. One of the most valuable of the tree crops was the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The preparation of palm fruits to make cooking oil enhanced the nutritional quality of the diet with both proteins and vitamins, further enhancing health and leading to population growth and the search for new land to be colonized and cultivated. The tending of trees also enhanced the quality of life in another dimension: some palm trees could be tapped for their sap, and the juice became the basis of a widespread wine industry, adding a festivity to communal life.

      A fourth and last aspect of early farming in Central Africa was the arrival of a new family of plants. This was the banana family ( Musaceae), originally domesticated in the islands of Southeast Asia. Banana plants, like yam tubers, were propagated by cuttings and roots rather than by seeds, but they gradually spread from neighbour to neighbour until the crop had become a dominant one in many parts of Central Africa. Banana plants supplied edible roots and textile fibres, but the two fundamental contributions were vegetable bananas (plantains) for cooking and sweet bananas for brewing. The banana flourished particularly well in the wetter areas—in the forests, along the rivers, and in the mountains—and in many societies it became the essential crop. Steamed, baked, fried, or boiled, the banana became the staple carbohydrate of many Central African peoples, and they washed it down with a banana beer rich in nutrients.

      The agricultural revolution in Central Africa was paralleled by another nutritional change as people became more skilled at catching fish. Fishermen—like farmers but unlike hunters—could settle in more permanent village communities. Their diet was richer and more varied. They could own more possessions than simply the weapons and clothes they carried with them. They could make rafts and canoes to transport people and goods on the numerous rivers and lakes. The most important technical innovation was the use of clay (clay mineral) for making pots for cooking, brewing, and storing food or drink. A whole “fish-stew revolution” occurred when cooking could be done in earthenware vessels. pottery also gives the earliest clues about the artistic styles of Central Africa; dotted and waved patterns were drawn on pot rims.

      The growth of settled communities of hamlets and villages to which food was taken by carriers and canoes led to changes in architecture, social organization, land law and property rights, and warfare and the defense of territory. Although most families probably remained self-sufficient and did their own building, thatching, net making, and pot throwing, some skills may have been concentrated in the hands of a few people of authority or experience. Little evidence survives of Neolithic (Neolithic Period) religion and ritual, but societies surely would have had priests to mediate between the gods and the mortals and to assist with the search for security in an age when the natural forces of fire or flood, plague or famine, were subject only to the most limited human control.

      One important change that entered into the Neolithic world of Central Africa in the last millennium BC was the spread of new languages. These were spoken in the relatively prosperous and thickly peopled savanna and plateau regions of the Cameroon-Nigeria borderland and came to be known as the Bantu languages, meaning simply the languages of the people, the bantu. Languages spread along lines of communication: they followed trade as specialists offered their finest pots or their best axes for sale to their neighbours. They became the vernacular of the clustered villages. They were picked up by country folk who came to market. They were carried into new frontier lands by pioneers seeking less-crowded spaces. Within 1,000 to 2,000 years the eastern Bantu languages had spread across the northern border of Central Africa to reach the highlands of East Africa. Meanwhile, the speakers of the western Bantu languages had found new niches in the great forest and established rapport with the old hunting and foraging communities of both the coast and the river basins.

      Not all the peoples of Central Africa were converted to Bantu speech and to the economic way of life of their new neighbours in the first flush of contact. Some hunting societies, commonly known as Twa (Pygmies) (Pygmy), retained much of their own culture and lifestyle for another 2,000 years. Some intermarriage occurred with the Bantu speakers of the new villages, and the exchange of hunted meat for grown produce fostered a fairly close symbiotic relationship. Eventually even the Twa groups spoke the language of the new majority, which came to outnumber them in nearly all parts of the region. In the deepest forest, however, the hunting societies were able to protect traditional values to a marked degree. Even the great social and political upheavals that accompanied the advent of the Iron Age did not unduly disturb their long-standing and highly specialized relationship with the tropical environment.

      The Iron Age reached Central Africa more or less at the same time it reached western Europe, some 3,000 years ago. The hallmark of the new era was technological innovation, but the social and economic changes that metalworking brought about were fundamental to the agricultural communities—if not to the hunting communities—of the tropics. Ironworking, unlike agriculture, was not a local invention but a skill that spread from community to community as the superiority of metal tools and weapons came to be recognized. Iron smelting came into Central Africa from two directions. In the northwest the oldest source of the new knowledge was on the Nigerian plateau. The skill necessary to dig pit furnaces and surround them with ranks of bellows spread among the Bantu-speaking peoples of the western forest. Gradually the polished stone tools that they had perfected were replaced by much more expensive but effective iron ones. Initially iron was probably used mainly for small and valuable objects such as razors, needles, and knives; later, as the smelting technique became more commonplace, iron came to be used for cutlasses, axes, and, eventually, hoes, which replaced the old wooden digging sticks.

      The second source of technical information in Central Africa was probably the middle valley of the Nile (Nile River), where the city of Meroe had been an early industrial site with a huge charcoal industry and great piles of iron slag surrounding its furnaces. The eastern tradition of smelting used furnaces as well as bellows to create the necessary draft with which to turn charcoal and ironstone into wrought iron and molten waste. The iron masters became revered craftsmen and were accorded a quasi-religious status. They lived in some seclusion and often commanded a degree of political authority over their neighbours. Legends of blacksmith-princes became commonplace in the historical folklore of Central Africa. Iron became important not only in the immediate locality but also in a developing interregional trade. Although ironstone and wood for charcoal were relatively common in most areas, the best smiths could nevertheless command a premium for their wares, and in some regions of deep blown sand or wide alluvial soils, where ores were not available, iron tools and weapons had to be bought from itinerant tinkers.

      Iron was a valuable commodity, both raw in wrought bars and worked into spears or machetes. Even more valuable, however, was copper. Central Africa had no Copper or Bronze Age in the last millennium BC, and it was in the Iron Age that the value of copper came to be recognized. Copper was particularly appreciated for its colour and lustre and was used for personal jewelry, rings, bangles, chains, necklaces, and hair ornaments—all made with great craftsmanship and given to persons loved or revered. Copper was also used in the ornamenting of personal belongings, the inlaying of decorations on knife handles, the binding of spear hafts with fine copper wire, and the embellishing of shields with burnished copper nails. Much of the copper mined in Central Africa was used to furnish the graves of important people with beautiful objects. The demand for fresh copper rose with each new generation. In particular, the development of new political authorities in the Iron Age led to the need for court regalia for chiefs and kings. Copper was used not only for its visual brilliance but also for the musical quality of the copper instruments that accompanied the nobility on their progress around their domains.

      The three main zones of copper working in Central Africa were the Nile watershed, the eastern savanna, and the southwestern forest. Each industrial complex was a thousand miles from the next, and trade intensified as the demand for copper increased. The oldest and largest mines were those of the east. By the end of the 1st millennium AD, the mines of what is now Katanga (Shaba [“Copper”]) province of Congo (Kinshasa) were casting copper ingots into molds of standard sizes for the international traffic. The region remained one of the world's greatest copper-mining areas for the next thousand years. In the north the copper was used to enhance the wealth and prestige of the local population, but it also fed into the long-distance trade networks of the southern Sahara, particularly after these had been strengthened and organized by Muslim merchants and entrepreneurs in the 14th and 15th centuries. The third copper complex, on the lower Congo River, remained an important but localized industry until a later date. At the end of the 16th century, however, the miners discovered a new outlet for their copper in Europe and sold large quantities to sea merchants from the Netherlands in exchange for Indian textiles, Chinese porcelain, South American tobacco, and stone jars of Dutch gin.

Growth of trade
      The development of the copper industry caused many of the peoples of Central Africa to look to their own resources for produce that could be sold in order to buy the prestigious new metal and other exotic goods. The salt industry developed out of the needs of long-distance trade. The salt lagoons of the west coast became particularly important, and salt tracks ran far into the interior to agricultural communities without salt of their own to season the cereal dishes that were their staple food. Away from the coast, communities that had access to salt mines, or to dried salt lakes, organized exploitation and marketing, sometimes going far afield to the salt mines of East Africa. Where salt was not available, or where the costs of transport made it prohibitively expensive, people had to make do with salt substitutes such as the ash of marsh plants. Where real salt was produced, however, the industry became a focus for political power, and early states were formed, as on the Loango coast of modern Congo.

      Of comparable importance to copper and salt was the textile industry. This also led to long-distance trade as specialized cloths were made for export to neighbouring regions. Like the salt industry, the textile industry sometimes was controlled by princes who dominated the markets and supplied protection to the caravanners who carried the bales of cloth. In western Central Africa the textile industry was based on fibre drawn from the raffia palm. The quality of the finished product, which sometimes had a velvetlike pile and a rich range of natural colours, was much admired by the first foreign visitors to the region. Indeed, raffia squares became the basis of colonial currency in the 17th century. Before that, raffia trading to and from the forest palm groves had become one of the sources of wealth among kings in the Kongo kingdom (Kongo).

      Textile weaving in Central Africa was important not only to kings and colonial governors but also to the regulation of social relations. Cloth provided one of the more durable and valuable possessions in every household. It therefore became the preferred item for social payments. In particular, bride wealth—which in other societies might be paid in gold or cattle—was commonly paid in cloth. The control of weaving was in the hands of old men. They no longer had the strength of young men to go hunting or to raid their neighbours, but they did control social wealth by monopolizing the weaving of raffia cloth. Young men had no access to the cloth and thus could not get married and set up a household; they remained dependent on the elders. The old men controlled cloth, and thus marriage, and could in the last years of their lives marry several young wives and ensure that their own line would be dominant in the next generation. In small and scattered societies across Central Africa, marriage was an important link between communities. Marrying within one's own clan or lineage was not always desirable, and maintaining contacts with neighbours in order to exchange brides was necessary. Permanent overarching political systems were not common, but the regular patterns of social communication went beyond merely commercial ones.

      Another source of wealth that became important throughout the history of Central Africa was the trade in dried fish. The management of fish ponds became one way in which the scale of political power increased from village size to state size. The lakes of the eastern savanna provide one example of early state formation. The ancestors of the Luba became wealthy and powerful by controlling the fishing industry (commercial fishing), building canoes and drying ovens, and setting up networks of trade paths along which porters carried tightly packed headloads of dried fish. In tropical conditions many foods were perishable, but dried fish could be preserved for months and carried to regions deficient in protein, where it was sold for high prices. The fish trade of the great rivers remained important, and fishermen were among the wealthier of the river dwellers. In the 20th century they were able to motorize their canoes, refrigerate their catches, and use steamers for long-distance transport.

      In most of Central Africa the scale of political management remained small; the power brokers were men who gained influence in local communities. Kingdoms were not the norm. In a few places, however, administration was organized on a scale that went beyond a single day's march from the central homestead. The most striking of the early kingdoms was that of the Kuba peoples, at the heart of the southern forest. Kuba kings controlled the resources of a diverse ecological environment. They built up trade networks that enabled them to obtain copper from far afield and, later, even to buy such valuable ornamental assets as cowrie shells from the Indian Ocean, which were traded from community to community across Africa. The kings of the Kuba based their claim to power on a mystical exotic origin, far away down the rivers to the west, though such an alien pedigree bore no historical justification. Power had more to do with membership in influential local groups than with migration. Wealth, the ownership of livestock, the control of land, the mobilization of militias—these were the features of state formation in those rare areas where kingship could flourish. The Kuba knew government on a scale comparable to the early fish-trading states of the Luba and the raffia-weaving principalities of the Kongo kings.

Central Africa and the outer world

Development of the slave trade
      In the 15th century Central Africa came into regular contact with the non-African world for the first time. Hitherto all external contact had been indirect and slow. Language, technology, and precious objects had spread to affect peoples' lives, but no regular contact was maintained. In the 15th century Central Africa opened direct relations both with the Mediterranean world of Islam and with the Atlantic world of Christendom. The Islamic contacts remained limited until the 19th century, though Leo Africanus visited the northern states of Central Africa in the early 16th century and described them in Latin for the benefit of the Vatican, where he worked for a time.

      The Atlantic opening had an earlier and more direct impact on Central Africa than the Mediterranean opening. In the 1470s a colony of Portuguese was settled on the offshore island of São Tomé (São Tomé and Príncipe). The Portuguese had been experimenting with colonial plantations for more than a century and already had settlements on Cape Verde and the Canary (Canary Islands) and Madeira (Madeira Islands) islands. On São Tomé they established fields of sugarcane and built sugar mills. This prototype industry, which was later taken to Brazil and the Caribbean, became the richest branch of Europe's colonial enterprise and had a lasting impact on the history of the African mainland. Settlers were unable to build plantations unaided and so recruited local support. European immigrants—predominantly, if not exclusively, male—sought out African consorts from the adjacent communities and established Creole families of plantation owners and managers. They also bought mainland slaves (slavery) to work the estates. São Tomé became the first bridgehead for the great Atlantic slave trade, which was to have a deep and scarring influence on most of Central Africa.

      Central African slaves taken to the island slave market were sold to three destinations. The strongest were sold to the Akan miners of the Gold Coast in West Africa, where royal Portuguese agents were able to buy up to half a ton of gold a year in exchange for imported commodities and slave workers from other parts of the continent. A second category of Central African slave was shipped to Europe and used both for domestic service in the town and for farm labour on the sparsely peopled estates that Portuguese Christians had conquered from Portuguese Muslims in the late Middle Ages. The third class of slave was put to work locally on the island.

      The fortunes of the São Tomé plantations fluctuated over the next five centuries. Sugar gave way to coffee as the mainstay, and coffee in turn was replaced by cocoa in the 19th century. In the 20th century the island was at the centre of a humanitarian furor over the continued use of slaves on the plantations. Cocoa manufacturers boycotted the island, and the planters tried to improve the working conditions of their employees. In the meantime, however, Central Africa's premier colony had been eclipsed by other European ventures on the mainland.

      The second attempt to build a European colony in Central Africa occurred in the kingdom of Kongo (Kongo) surrounding the mouth of the Congo River. Portuguese traders exploited a division in the ruling class to gain a foothold at the court and the support of a royal claimant, who adopted Christianity and assumed the title of Afonso I. The Portuguese had hoped to find precious metals, as they had done in West Africa and were later to do in southeastern Africa, but the only source of profit they could realize was the buying of slaves for the São Tomé market. The king was under increasing pressure to use his army to raid his neighbours for captives. Even the Roman Catholic priests attached to the colonial mission found that they had to finance their activities by trading in slaves. The increasing profitability of slaving, and the lack of alternative sources of exportable wealth, placed growing pressures on the kingdom. Eventually, after the death of Afonso, popular rebellion broke out on a virulent scale. In order to preserve their foothold, the Portuguese equipped the governor of São Tomé with an army of 600 musketeers with which to reconquer their mainland base and install a pliant king in the Kongo capital. The Latin American tradition of the Iberian conquistador was thus introduced into Central Africa.

      The great slaving campaigns of the conquistadores began in the 1570s after the Kongo wars had been quelled. The Portuguese harbour of Luanda was taken over by the Spanish Habsburgs in 1580, when the two crowns were united, and a series of armed assaults were launched on the states of the Mbundu peoples of the interior. The basis of the invasion was the rising demand for slaves to colonize the huge but sparsely peopled provinces of Brazil. Many slaves were captured directly or obtained as ransom for important chiefs. Many more were obtained from long-distance trade networks that penetrated ever deeper into the heart of Central Africa both by river and by footpath. The primary imports of the traders were textiles from India, England, North Africa, or Portugal itself. But Portugal, even with the backing of Spain, was not economically strong enough to maintain its monopoly over the foreign trade in Central Africa. By the end of the 16th century, competitors were frequenting the coast.

      The Dutch were the second colonial power to influence the history of Central Africa. Their impact was felt in ways rather different from that of the Portuguese. They were more interested in commodities than in slaves and so opened up the market for ivory. The old hunting skills gained a new value as the market for tusks blossomed and commercial entrepreneurs organized caravans over long distances. Even the Twa forest dwellers were able to benefit from the hunting of elephants. By the mid-17th century, however, the Dutch had established their own American colonies and so joined in the scramble for slaves. They began to sell guns to their trading partners to facilitate the destruction of old communities and the capture of fugitives. The supply and sale of powder, lead, and muskets became profitable to the coastal brokers but devastating to the inland victims.

      The geographic scale of the Central African slave trade was enormous. By the 18th century the supply routes to the Atlantic reached the middle of the continent and had begun to intersect with the long-distance trade to the Indian Ocean. As the trade spread, so did the search for political systems that could manage the traffic. The largest and most successful of the new merchant empires was the empire of the Lunda (Lunda empire) at the heart of the southern savanna. The Lunda people seem to have become aware of the slave trade as early as the 16th century. Wandering Lunda hunters and salt prospectors, known as Imbangala (or Jaga), entered Angola and recruited local followers into heavily armed bands that raided the countryside, sold their captives to European sailors, and eventually formed an alliance with the Portuguese conquistadores, who allowed them to set up their own kingdom in the Kasanje plain on the borders between Lunda and the European coastal enclaves. At first the kingdom of Kasanje acted solely as merchant brokers to the Portuguese, but, with the rise of rival European buyers on the northern Congo coast, its network spread farther afield. As the market expanded, so did the sources of supply. In the Lunda hinterland a powerful ruler adopting the title of Mwata Yamvo became chief supplier to the Kasanje intermediaries. The Lunda empire spread its commercial network not only to the west but also eastward until it had outlets to the lower Zambezi River and the Indian Ocean. The Mwata Yamvo of the west and his viceroy, the Mwata Kazembe of the east, effectively monopolized the slave trade of the heartland. As the Atlantic market grew, Lunda influence spread both north toward the forest and south into the dry plain of the upper Zambezi. In the early 19th century the court began to receive ambassadorial visits from representatives of the king of Portugal, and some years later echoes of the Mwata's greatness reached the Protestant explorer-missionaries of the far south, such as David Livingstone (Livingstone, David).

      In the 18th century the Dutch were replaced by the French as the leading slave merchants on the north coast of the Congo region as the scale of the trade grew rapidly. Congo captives became the dominant population in Saint-Domingue, later called Haiti, which rose to be the richest of all the world's colonies and before 1791 the largest supplier of sugar. The slaves carried with them some of their cultural values and tried to reconstruct their communities under the shadow of the great plantation houses. Bantu vocabulary and personal names were added to the Creole (creole languages) speech of the Caribbean. Kongo religious practices were preserved in a nominally Christian colonial society when attempts were made to minimize the insecurity and suffering by worship and ritual. But, however much the slaves tried to reconstruct Central African society in the New World, their departure left a serious mark on the Old World. The scale of the French trade rose to about 10,000 men, women, and children each year. The demographic hemorrhage was felt in spreading ripples, and the already frail population of Central Africa was further weakened. Not until the outbreak of revolution in France, and later in Haiti, did the French trade begin to decline.

      Although the Central African population had declined and did not begin to recover until the beginning of the 20th century, two new crops introduced to the region from the Americas enhanced the productive capacity of the land and helped Central Africans recover from the ravages of slaving. The first was corn (maize), which required the same agricultural skills as millet and so could be easily adopted. Corn had the advantage over millet that its grain was wrapped in an envelope of leaves that protected the crop from predatory birds. Corn also had higher yields than millet where soil and water were sufficient, which increased food production and partly compensated for the loss of field hands to the slavers. The second new crop was cassava, or manioc, a root crop easily adopted by tuber farmers but more difficult for grain farmers to accept. It too was better protected from rodents—and even from marauders—than traditional crops. Cassava could be left in the ground when farmers had to flee in war and then recovered whole and edible on their return. To those unfamiliar with cassava, however, it could be dangerous, because the protective poisons in the plant, which made it inedible to vermin, had to be washed out before it was cooked for human consumption.

      New crops from outside brought some small benefit to the region, but new diseases had the opposite effect. The growth of long-distance communication led to the spread of smallpox along the slave trails. It was a disease (infectious disease) much feared both in the villages and on the slave ships. During serious periods of warfare and raiding, populations were weakened by famine and so easily fell prey to measles and pneumonia. Central Africa was also a malarial zone (malaria), although the disease was most deadly for Europeans. Equally dangerous to Africans, especially in the 20th century, were epidemics of sleeping sickness, which periodically spread through the region. As though this were not enough, Central Africa was attacked in the early 20th century by the world influenza pandemic. The already weakened population became thinner still and did not recover until well into the middle of the century.

      The Central African slave trade continued into the 19th century, however. The Portuguese moved back into northern Central Africa when the French trade declined, and Brazil bought more slaves than ever before from Central Africa in the first half of the century, continuing to use slaves until the 1880s. Spain also entered the market to buy slaves for its surviving American colony in Cuba, where the tobacco industry combined the modernization of the railway age with the old plantation use of slaves.

      The abolition movement (abolitionism) helped to end the slave trade by the late 19th century, although slavery continued in Africa into the 20th century. While the end of four centuries of international slaving might have been expected to lead to a new era of freedom and opportunity in Central Africa, this did not happen. Instead, a whole new set of foreign forces began to penetrate the area. The first of these came from the long-delayed growth of international commerce on the northern border of the region.

Exploitation of ivory
      In the second half of the 19th century, the northern border of Central Africa was suddenly opened up to the impact of an intense new trade in ivory. Rapid prosperity in both Europe and North America had led to an increase in demand for ivory to make piano keys, billiard balls, knife handles, and ornamental carvings. Traders from Egypt and the old Ottoman Empire of North Africa went across the Sahara and up the Nile to cross into the upper reaches of the Congo basin, where elephants were still plentiful. In so doing, they severely disrupted local societies as they kidnapped local peoples to serve as bearers, servants, and concubines. The victims of the trading and hunting raids not only were used in the heavily armed and fortified ivory camps but also were taken away to be sold as slave girls in the harems of Constantinople or as water carriers in the streets of Cairo.

      The second mobile frontier to intrude on Central Africa in the 19th century was in the east, and eventually it became as disruptive as the northern incursion. The first immigrants were long-distance traders from the Nyamwezi kingdom founded by Mirambo, who arrived in search of copper. They set up their own trading kingdom under Msiri and developed a large army of followers equipped with lances and bows. Msiri also trained a military elite of 2,000 men, whom he armed with guns bought on the east coast in exchange for ivory. Msiri's kingdom became one of the largest conquest states to be carved out in Central Africa. He adopted the administrative methods of the old Lunda kings, whose provinces he captured and whose governors he reappointed as his own agents and consuls. He also gained control of the old empire's eastern slave trade. In this field, however, Msiri had a powerful rival in the Swahili trade community, which had reached Central Africa from Zanzibar.

      The Swahili traders and their Arab allies were involved with both the slave trade and the ivory trade. Their slaves were put to work on the spice plantations of Zanzibar or sold as pearl divers and domestic servants in the Arabian and Persian gulfs. The ivory went to the United States to buy calico, which was in great demand in the eastern Congo basin. One of the traders took the nickname “Americani” because his American calico was so famed. An even better-known Swahili merchant prince was Tippu Tib, who became the effective ruler of the Swahili towns on the upper reaches of the Congo River. His methods of trade were brutal. Villagers were forcibly rounded up into camps, often with great loss of life—as witnessed by Livingstone on his visit—and then ransomed by their relatives, who were sent out on hazardous elephant-trapping expeditions. The ivory trade thus disrupted the east as effectively as it disrupted the north. Worse still, the pattern of exploitation was one that was soon adopted by the first Europeans to enter the region. They also used capture and ransom to extract wealth from their victims. The first European ruler of the Congo, the Belgian king Leopold (Leopold II), appointed Tippu Tib his governor and gave him command of the east in recognition of his military and commercial achievements.

      The great 19th-century scramble for ivory also brought disruption to Central Africa from the south in the years immediately preceding the colonial partition. The agents in the south were Chokwe hunters from Angola (see Southern Africa: The slave and ivory trade (Southern Africa)). They had been successful collectors of beeswax, and their trade had enabled them to build up armories of guns, which they eventually turned on their neighbours. They penetrated the heartland of the Lunda empire in the 1880s and destroyed the court. Their victims were sold on the Atlantic coast and were the last European-owned slaves on the old plantations of São Tomé. Their ivory went to the Portuguese after the crown had abandoned its restrictive monopoly on tusks and allowed private entrepreneurs to benefit from market forces. But when ivory became scarce and slaves were frowned upon, the Chokwe pioneered a new branch of trade that was to bring even greater horrors to the peoples of Central Africa. This was the search for red rubber, the sap of the wild rubber vine that grew throughout the forest and savanna galleries of the Congo basin. As the price of rubber rose with the development of the electrical and motor industries, so the rubber traders penetrated further into the communities of refugees who had sought to escape the disruptions of the last phase of the slave trade. It was the rubber trade that financed the first stage of formal colonial rule in Central Africa.

Colonialism (colonialism, Western)

Establishment of European colonies
      The pioneer colonizer in Central Africa was Leopold II, king of the Belgians. The early attempts of his father, Leopold I, to found colonies in remnants of the Spanish empire in the Pacific or America had failed, and he therefore turned his attention to Central Africa, which was still little known to European geographers and therefore less intensely coveted than West or Southern Africa. He set up his colony (the Congo Free State) as a private, ostensibly humanitarian venture aimed at limiting the devastation of slaving and the liquor trade. To finance the venture, however, he rented out nation-size fiefs to commercial companies that were licensed to make a profit and pay tax and tribute to the colonizer-king. Companies such as the Anglo-Belgian India Rubber Company, the Antwerp Company, and the king's own Crown Domain took over the extraction of rubber from the Chokwe. Since the profits on rubber were low compared with ivory or slaves, great pressure had to be brought to bear to encourage newly subjected villagers to forsake their agricultural livelihoods and risk their lives in the forest to gather the vine sap. Military force was used, rubber collecting became compulsory, and defaulters were barbarically punished by having their limbs amputated. The rubber regime in the western Congo basin was no more benign than the ivory regime that Leopold adopted from the Swahili in the east.

      The humanitarian protest against the rule of Leopold was led by traders who had lost access to their former sphere of interest, by missionaries who deplored the denial of human rights, and by a British diplomat who believed in political freedom. Roger (later Sir Roger) Casement (Casement, Sir Roger) publicized the atrocities in the Congo Free State to such good effect that in 1908 the Belgian government confiscated the colony from its own king in an attempt to put an end to the misrule of exploitation. However much other nations might have condemned Leopold's rule, rival colonizers were also keen to make their colonies profitable and did so by farming out concessions to private enterprise and turning a blind eye to the large-scale use of forced labour.

      The most immediate rival to Leopold in creating instant new colonies was Otto von Bismarck (Bismarck, Otto von), chancellor of the new German Empire. Most of the colonies he created were outside Central Africa, but he did succeed in laying claim to one tiny but richly populated corner on the mountainous border of East Africa. The old kingdoms of Rwanda and Burundi had thrived for centuries. The ruling class grew tall on the milk of its cattle and governed its farming subjects with imperious superiority. In the forest the old inhabitants continued to maintain their hunting lifestyle and, where possible, to escape the attentions of their neighbours. In the late 19th century Burundi underwent severe dislocation, with conflicts over the monarchy and rivalry between chiefs and kings. The Germans moved in from Tanganyika and tried to impose order. They also took over the more stable kingdom of Rwanda.

      Although the German intrusion into Central Africa from the east was slight and short-lived, a comparable French intrusion in the west led to the creation of a much bigger and more lasting equatorial empire. It was the work of the explorer-turned-governor Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza (Brazza, Pierre de). The French presence was confined at first to former slaving beaches on the Congo coast and Libreville, a haven for freed slaves on the Gabon Estuary. Brazza aspired to join these coastal enclaves to the middle stretch of the Congo River, where the colonial capital was named Brazzaville in his honour. He also aspired to claim territory for France as far east as the upper regions of the Nile. Such an enterprise brought France into competition not only with Leopold, on the far bank of the river, but also with Britain, which had laid claim to the lower Nile in Egypt and wanted to protect the headwaters by conquering the upper Nile as well. The French were narrowly defeated in the race to the Nile (the Fashoda (Fashoda Incident) incident) but nevertheless gained imperial dominion over a huge stretch of northern Central Africa, which they called Ubangi-Shari and which later became the diamond-rich Central African Republic.

      The problems that France faced in Central Africa were not materially different from those faced by Leopold. The territories were huge, thinly peopled, and poorly endowed with resources that could finance colonial administration and make a profit for the colonizing power. Transport was the greatest difficulty. Leopold went so far as to claim that the essence of colonization was the creation of a transport system. Both France and Leopold were handicapped by the rapids on the lower Congo River and so each had, at huge cost in money and men, to build a railway to reach the navigable middle river. Leopold used the famous British-American explorer Henry (later Sir Henry) Morton Stanley (Stanley, Sir Henry Morton), the “Breaker of Rocks” (Bula Mutari), to mobilize the necessary forced labour to gain access to his territory. The French tried importing Chinese workers, who could be hired in Asia even more cheaply than local labour could be conscripted in Africa.

      The French imitated Leopold, and also the British and Portuguese, by awarding concessions to colonial companies on the condition that they take responsibility for their own administration and infrastructure in return for the right to extract profits from subject peoples and conquered lands. The most notorious of the French colonial entrepreneurs made their money out of timber concessions. Only toward the end of the colonial period and after did French Equatorial Africa discover that it was rich in iron ore, petroleum, and uranium.

Economic organization
      The violent phase of Central African colonialism, involving the forced extraction of rubber, ivory, and timber, was followed by a more systematic phase of economic organization. One facet was the establishment of formal plantations on which to grow oil palms and rubber trees. These plantations required capital, machinery, and expensive foreign management. As a result, there was little margin left for adequate wages for workers. The recruitment of labour became the duty of the colonial state or its licensed agents. Some workers accepted the incentive of a cash wage to buy material goods or to accumulate the necessary social payments for marriage. Others were driven into the wage sector by the imposition of cash taxes, which could be met only by working for colonial enterprises. But some were recruited on a compulsory basis—not as convicts deserving of punishment but as subjects who needed to be “civilized” by submitting to a work regime imposed by the state.

      Where plantations did not develop, the colonial state found a means of extracting wealth from free peasants. They introduced compulsory crops, most notably cotton—“le coton du gouverneur.” Forced cotton imposed severe hardships on farmers, who could not grow food for their families but instead had to clear land to sow cotton for the state. When the crop succeeded, they received a small payment. But much of the cotton regime was applied to marginal lands, where it often failed. The risk was borne by the victim, and famine resulted. The planting of cotton led to frequent protests and to harsh repression in Central Africa, as it did in German East Africa and Portuguese West Africa.

      The largest industrial complex to develop in Central Africa was the mining industry of the copper belt in what is now far southeastern Congo (Kinshasa). Leopold had won a race with the British South African empire builder Cecil Rhodes (Rhodes, Cecil) to reach the copper mines and had conquered the kingdom of Msiri, killing the king in the process. The next challenge was to build a transport system that could carry machinery into the mining zone and export finished ingots. The politics of transport were the key to development in the high colonial period, as they had been in the early phase. Two railway lines ran to the Indian Ocean coast: one was built across German Africa to the port of Dar es Salaam and another through British Zambesia to the Portuguese port of Beira; a third railroad crossed Angola to the harbour of Lobito on the Atlantic. None of these, however, was under the control of the Belgians, who planned to create a national route to their own port of Matadi on the Congo estuary. To do so they had to use an expensive and complex mixture of rail and river steamers, and so the copper mines remained integrated in an international network of finance and transport. They also depended on neighbouring regions for their supply of coal and electricity. The industry was dominated by a concession company, the Union Minière du Haut-Katanga, which became almost as powerful as the colonial state itself. The two were interlocked in rivalry and mutual dependence, and the Belgian Congo was described as the “portfolio state” for its reliance on copper shares.

      Two other mining zones added to the wealth of the colonial Congo: diamonds (diamond) in the west and gold in the east. Between them the three mining zones were large-scale employers of unskilled labour. Some workers were temporary migrants who worked on contract and whose families subsisted on peasants' incomes during their absence. Much of the burden of colonialism fell on women, who became heads of households and managers of family farms when the men were taken to the mines. Part of the mine labour was supplied by migrants who moved permanently to the towns and became proletarian workers exclusively dependent on their wages. Among the townsmen, education and technical training became the road to economic advancement. The Belgian colonial system maintained a rigorous paternal structure, however, and, although more subjects became literate in Congo than in other colonies, few could aspire to higher skills or managerial posts. These positions were reserved for the white expatriate population.

      One distinctive feature of the colonial era in Central Africa was the role of the church. The state provided so few services that missions moved in to make up the deficit. The most famous of all missionaries was Albert Schweitzer (Schweitzer, Albert), the Alsatian musician and theologian who became a physician and set up a hospital in the heart of French Equatorial Africa. British Baptists also played a major role in converting the people of the lower Congo area to Protestantism and providing them with basic education and minimal welfare services. When turmoil again hit the region at the end of the colonial period, it was the Baptists who brought services to the mass refugee camps. In the Belgian sphere the Roman Catholic church took a high profile and eventually established a Catholic university through which to train not only colonial whites but also a small elite of black Africans. The rival to the state church was an independent black church, built in honour of the martyred preacher Simon Kimbangu (Kimbangu, Simon), who spent most of his life in a Belgian colonial prison. Later still, Central Africa became a prime zone of evangelism for the fundamentalist groups that sprang up in the United States in the last decades of the 20th century. When the postcolonial state withered, the churches took on greater formal and informal responsibilities for health and education and for communications and financial services in remote areas.

The end of the colonial period
      The colonial period in Central Africa came to an abrupt end in 1960. At a constitutional level, dramatic changes occurred. Both France and Belgium decided that they could not resist the winds of change with armed force. Once the black nationalists of West Africa had won the right to self-determination from Britain, it was not deemed possible to deny the same rights in Central Africa. New constitutions were therefore accepted, parliaments were elected, and flags were flown and anthems played. General Charles de Gaulle (Gaulle, Charles de) of France, whose path to power had led him to Brazzaville during World War II, became the hero of the new equatorial republics to which he granted independence. King Baudouin of the Belgians participated in the independence celebrations of Congo at Léopoldville (now Kinshasa) but managed to orchestrate his reception with less finesse. “Flag independence” in Central Africa, however, did not bring any real transformation to satisfy the high aspirations of former colonial subjects.

David Birmingham

Additional Reading

General works
Overviews of Central African history can be found in J.D. Fage and Roland Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, 8 vol. (1975–86); UNESCO International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa, General History of Africa (1981–93); and Kevin Shillington, History of Africa, rev. ed. (1995). David Birmingham and Phyllis M. Martin (eds.), History of Central Africa, 2 vol. (1983), is a comprehensive survey of both northern and southern Central Africa and includes a bibliographic essay for each chapter. John Middleton (ed.), Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara, 4 vol. (1997), contains articles on countries and regions of Africa as well as other topics relating to Africa.

Developments to the 19th century
J. Desmond Clark, The Prehistory of Africa (1970, reprinted 1984), by the pioneer prehistorian of Central Africa, surveys the Stone Age. David W. Phillipson, African Archaeology (1985), is an overview by a specialist on the later prehistoric period. Joseph C. Miller, Kings and Kinsmen (1976), is an innovative study of the use of oral evidence for the construction of Central African history; his Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730–1830 (1988) is mainly concerned with south-central Africa but illustrates the history of the slave trade in ways not hitherto attempted. Jan Vansina, Kingdoms of the Savanna (1966), is a survey of state formation in precolonial Central Africa; his Paths in the Rainforest: Toward a History of Political Tradition in Equatorial Africa (1990) is a companion volume on the forest peoples and their forms of social organization. Vansina's The Children of Woot: A History of the Kuba Peoples (1978) radically reinterprets Kuba history as first understood by scholars of the 1950s. Anne Hilton, The Kingdom of Kongo (1985), is a sophisticated analysis of the state, utilizing the extensive surviving early Italian, Dutch, and Portuguese records. John K. Thornton, The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641–1718 (1983), carries the history of the kingdom through a phase of disintegration. Dennis D. Cordell, Dar al-Kuti and the Last Years of the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade (1985), looks at state formation on the Muslim fringe of north-central Africa. Robert W. Harms, River of Wealth, River of Sorrow: The Central Zaire Basin in the Era of the Slave and Ivory Trade, 1500–1891 (1981), is one of the great classics of Central African history. Thomas Q. Reefe, The Rainbow and the Kings: A History of the Luba Empire to 1891 (1981), significantly revises previous interpretations of the leading inland empire of Central Africa.Charles Perrings, Black Mineworkers in Central Africa (1979), offers a radical history of the Katanga copper mines. Eugenia W. Herbert, Red Gold of Africa: Copper in Precolonial History and Culture (1984), is a brilliantly innovative and deeply researched cultural history. René Lemarchand, Rwanda and Burundi (1970), discusses the early history of these countries.

From the 19th century to the present
Sidney Langford Hinde, The Fall of the Congo Arabs (1897, reprinted 1969), offers an eyewitness account of the colonial conquest of eastern Congo (Kinshasa) in the 1890s. Adam Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa (1998), discusses the exploitation of African labour in what became the Belgian Congo. William Roger Louis, Ruanda-Urundi, 1884–1919 (1963, reprinted 1979), provides a diplomatic history of the German enclave in Central Africa. Thomas Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa: White Man's Conquest of the Dark Continent from 1876 to 1912 (1991), examines European expansion on the continent of Africa. Patrick Manning, Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1985 (1988), discusses the colonization and then decolonization of parts of Central Africa. David Birmingham and Phyllis M. Martin (eds.), History of Central Africa: The Contemporary Years Since 1960 (1998), examines countries in the region to elucidate their postcolonial experience. Tamara Giles-Vernick, Cutting the Vines of the Past: Environmental Histories of the Central African Rain Forest (2002), focuses on the differing views that Africans and Europeans have of Africa's environment. Marie-Louise Martin, Kimbangu: An African Prophet and His Church (1975; originally published in German, 1971), studies the independent church of Congo (Kinshasa). Of the many books on the genocide in Rwanda and Burundi, two of the best are Gérard Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide, expanded (1998); and René Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide (1996).David Birmingham

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Universalium. 2010.

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