Caitanya

Caitanya

▪ Hindu mystic
also spelled  Chaitanya,  in full  Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya,  or  Śrī Krishna Chaitanya,  also called  Gaurāṅga,  original name  Viśvambhara Miśra 
born 1485, Navadvīpa, Bengal, India
died 1533, Puri, Orissa

      Hindu mystic whose mode of worshipping the god Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) with ecstatic song and dance had a profound effect on Vaiṣṇavism in Bengal.

      The son of a Brahman, he grew up in an atmosphere of piety and affection. He received a thorough education in the Sanskrit scriptures and, after the death of his father, set up a school of his own. At the age of 22 he made a pilgrimage to Gayā to perform his father's śrāddha (death anniversary ceremony). While there he underwent a profound religious experience that completely transformed his outlook and personality. He returned to Navadvīpa a God-intoxicated man, entirely indifferent to all worldly concerns.

      A group of devotees soon gathered around Caitanya and joined him in the congregational worship called kīrtana, which consists of the choral singing of hymns and the name of God, often accompanied by dance movements and culminating in states of trance. In 1510 he received formal initiation as an ascetic and took the name Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya. His intention was to leave for Vṛndāvana (the area near Mathurā that was the scene of Krishna's childhood and youth), but at the insistence of his mother he agreed instead to settle in Puri, where his disciples could more easily keep in touch with him.

      Caitanya neither organized a sect (Caitanya sect) nor wrote any works on theology, entrusting this work to his disciples (see Caitanya sect). Nevertheless, his simple life of intense religious emotion proved at once the source and the impetus of a great religious movement. Frequent and prolonged experiences of religious rapture, however, took their toll on his health; he himself diagnosed some of his seizures as epileptic. The exact date and circumstances of his death are unknown, and many legends have sprung up, such as his merger into a temple image or (more plausible) his accidental drowning while in a state of religious ecstasy.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • CAITANYA — ou CHAÏTANYA (1485 1534) Né dans une famille de brahmanes orthodoxes du Bengale, Caitanya (Chaïtanya) devint fameux lorsqu’il prêcha une forme nouvelle de religion de bhakti («dévotion ardente») dans laquelle Krishna n’était plus présenté comme… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Caitanya — biographical name the Supreme Lord who appeared approx. five hundred years ago (1486 A.D.) in Navadvīpa, West Bengal. Although He is identical to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, He appeared with the bhāva (internal mood) and kānti (bodily complexion) of Śrīmatī… …   The Bhaktivedanta encyclopedia

  • Caitanya — Caitạnya   [tʃaɪ ], seit 1509 Krịshna Caitanya [ ʃ ], eigentlich Vishvạmbara Mịshra, bengalischer Wanderprediger und Anhänger des indischen Gottes Krishna (Vishnu), * Nadiya 1486, ✝ 1533; gewann durch seine ekstatischen, von Musik und… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Caitanya — pseud. di Mishra, Vishvambhara …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • caitanya — चैतन्य …   Indonesian dictionary

  • caitanya — consciousness; the Universal soul or spirit …   The Bhaktivedanta encyclopedia

  • Caitanya sect — ▪ Hinduism also spelled  Chaitanya        intensely emotional form of Hinduism that has flourished from the 16th century, mainly in Bengal and eastern Orissa, India. It takes its name from the medieval saint Caitanya (Chaitanya; 1485–1533), whose …   Universalium

  • Caitanya movement — Emotional form of Hinduism that developed in the 16th century, inspired by the mode of worship originated by Caitanya. Centred in Bengal, the movement was organized by Caitanya s followers Nityananda and Advaita. Bhakti (devotion) is central and… …   Universalium

  • Caitanya, movimiento — Forma emotiva del hinduismo que se desarrolló en el s. XVI, inspirada en el modo de culto iniciado por Caitanya. Originario de la región de Bengala, el movimiento fue organizado por Nityananda y Advaita, dos seguidores de Caitanya. Bhakti (la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Caitanya, Sri Krishna — orig. Vishvambhara Mishra (1485, Navadvipa, Bengala, India–1533, Puri, Orissa). Místico hindú. Nacido en el seno de una familia de la casta brahmán de India y fue profesor. Durante una peregrinación para realizar la ceremonia anual que… …   Enciclopedia Universal


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