art and architecture, Anatolian

art and architecture, Anatolian


      the art and architecture of ancient Anatolian civilizations.

      Anatolia is the name that is currently applied to the whole Asian territory of modern Turkey. Its western half is a broad peninsula connecting the continent of Asia with Europe. Because the country lacks geographic unity, its component regions being widely differentiated in climate and economy, early students of antiquity doubted the probability of its ever having acquired an overall cultural identity and considered its contributions to ancient art to have been provincial and intermittent. Archaeological research in more recent years, however, revealed in Anatolia a deep-seated aboriginal culture productive of ideas that are reflected in the art of the peninsula throughout its history.

      Written history in Anatolia commences with the introduction of cuneiform writing (cuneiform) (composed of wedge-shaped characters) by Assyrian merchants resident at Kanesh (Kültepe) and elsewhere in the 19th and 18th centuries BC. A conventional terminology is used in reference to the previous ages, knowledge of which is entirely dependent on the results of archaeological excavations. The earliest of these periods, the chronology of which is still imprecisely defined, are the Neolithic and the Chalcolithic. An Early Bronze Age takes up the greater part of the 3rd millennium BC. During the Middle Bronze Age the central Anatolian principalities with whom the Assyrian merchants were in contact were amalgamated in the Hittite old kingdom (c. 1700–c. 1500 BC), and in the Late Bronze Age they made up the homeland of the Hittite empire (c. 1400–c. 1190 BC). The seven centuries that followed are loosely referred to as the Iron Age.

Pre-Hittite period

Neolithic (Neolithic Period) and Chalcolithic (Chalcolithic Age) periods
      Anatolian excavations have done much to illuminate the genesis of visual arts in the earliest settled communities. In a Neolithic setting, at Çatalhüyük in the Konya plain, a township covering more than 15 acres (6 hectares) and dating from the 7th millennium BC was found. The houses, already built of sun-dried brick, were contiguous, each having several rectangular rooms similarly planned (architecture) and accessible only by a wooden ladder from a flat roof. These interconnected roofs provided space for the communal life of the inhabitants. Religious shrines were elaborately ornamented with animal heads or horns, either real or imitated in plaster. Walls were decorated with coloured murals, repeatedly repainted after replastering. The subjects of the paintings were ritual hunting scenes or obscure occult imagery, both themes recalling those of Paleolithic cave paintings. Sculpture in bone or stone was fashioned with remarkable skill, either as ornament or as cult effigy.

      At Hacılar, a Chalcolithic site near Burdur, Turkey, village houses were entered at ground level; their standard plan shows the first evidence of conscious architectural symmetry. Much in evidence among the contents of these houses is pottery painted with extremely decorative designs. The same ornament was applied to anthropomorphic jars and stylized human idols found in graves. A higher standard of modeling, however, was attained in unpainted clay figurines—steatopygous females, some seated or reclining, others holding a child or tame animal.

      At Hacılar some provision was made for communal defense by the strengthening of contiguous buildings on the periphery of the settlement. In a 5th-millennium level at Mersin, in Cilicia, there is a purposefully planned military fortress, with slit windows in its protective wall, a towered gateway, and standardized accommodation for the garrison.

      In the Early Bronze Age the further development of military architecture is best illustrated at Troy, where parts of a fortress were uncovered. The most convincingly reconstructed plan dates from the second phase of the Early Bronze Age (c. 2700–c. 2500 BC). It shows a polygonal enclosure, hardly 300 feet in diameter, surrounded by heavy mud-brick walls on a stone substructure. There is a single gateway, with strongly built flanking towers and gate chambers, guarding the approach through a narrow sloping corridor. Most prominent within the enclosure is a large public building thought to be an assembly hall, built to the so-called megaron plan, which two millennia later was to dictate the form of a Greek temple. Approached through an open portico, the building consists of a megaron—a wide rectangular hall with an enormous central hearth. Near it is a second, less substantially constructed building that is thought to have been the residential palace, since hoards of gold ornaments and other precious objects were discovered buried beneath it; the archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann named these objects Priam's Treasure.

      At Beycesultan, buildings that were almost certainly religious shrines were uncovered—a find of some interest, since temples are virtually unknown in Anatolia at this period. Rectangular shrine chambers seemed to be arranged in pairs, with ritual installations recalling the Horns of Consecration and Tree, or Pillar, cults of Minoan (Minoan civilization) Crete. A palace building at the same site, dating from the Middle Bronze Age (c. 1750 BC), had reception rooms at first-floor level, also in the Minoan manner. In common with most other Bronze Age buildings in Anatolia, its walls were composed of a brick-filled timber framework on stone foundations. The private houses of this period at Beycesultan were all built on the megaron plan.

 The art of the Anatolian Early Bronze Age is best represented by metalwork from royal tombs (tomb) at Alaca Hüyük, in the bend of the Halys River (modern Kızıl River), and from two minor sites in Pontus—Horoztepe and Mahmatlar. At Alaca Hüyük, in particular, members of a ruling family were buried among the paraphernalia of funerary ritual, accompanied by their personal possessions: weapons, ornaments, toilet articles, domestic vessels, and utensils (made of gold, silver, and bronze). One dagger has a crescent-shaped handle and a blade of iron—a metal known to have had many times the value of gold at this time—and among the ornaments there is a fine gold-filigree (openwork made with metal wire) diadem. Equally striking was the variety of objects associated with the funerary ritual: figures of animals (such as stags), finely wrought in bronze and inlaid with silver, and strange openwork grills of bronze, sometimes adorned with animals (see photograph—>). These objects were probably mounted at the heads of poles supporting a catafalque or canopy. There are also freestanding metal figurines, one of bronze with boots and breasts enriched with silver.

      From these luxury objects found at Alaca Hüyük, together with those found at Troy and elsewhere, scholars have concluded that processes known to the Anatolian metalsmiths of the Early Bronze Age included casting by cire perdue, hammering or repoussé work, sweating or soldering, granulation (decoration consisting of tiny spheres of gold soldered onto a background), filigree, and cloisonné inlay. Carnelian, jasper, nephrite, obsidian, and meerschaum were all used for ornament.

Middle Bronze Age
      Objects from the houses of the Kültepe merchants, representing the art of the Middle Bronze Age, are somewhat less impressive. Rhytons (a type of drinking vessel) and theriomorphic (having an animal form) vessels in painted terra-cotta show imaginative modeling, and local deities appear in the form of small statuettes and molded reliefs. It is, however, in the designs of contemporary cylinder seals (cylinder seal) that the art and religious concepts of the indigenous peoples are fully illustrated for the first time. Here is the iconography of the Anatolian gods, complete with their sacred furniture, ritual attributes, and appropriate animals.

Hittite period
      The Hittite old kingdom, with its capital city, Hattusa (modern Boğazköy), in the Halys bend, was one of several states into which Anatolia was divided during the second quarter of the 2nd millennium BC. Its finest monuments date from the imperial period that followed. The capital city, strategically placed astride a rocky gorge, has an inner enclosure, rising up to a high citadel rock (Büyükkale). Greatly extended in imperial times, the outer city has a four-mile circuit of powerful fortifications (fortification). The double walls, with their defensive towers and substructure of cyclopean masonry (large irregular blocks without mortar), stand upon a stone-faced rampart of earth, itself protected by a stone apron wall. The corbeled arches of its gates are flanked by portal sculptures—lions or sphinxes—anticipating those of the Late Assyrian palaces. Carved on the stone doorjamb of one arch is a famous relief of a warrior wearing the characteristically Hittite short kilt and conical helmet.

      Elsewhere in the city there are four buildings recognizable as temples (temple), the largest of which has been fully excavated. It is a huge building, surrounded by ranges of store chambers, planned around a wide courtyard with pillared colonnades and a small freestanding shrine in one corner. These features and the isolated position of the main sanctuary have no parallel in the temples of Mesopotamia or Syria.

      Modern knowledge of Hittite sculpture (Western sculpture) is derived, first, from the portal sculptures of Hattusa itself and, second, from rock sculptures, including those decorating the remarkable shrine called Yazılıkaya, some distance outside the town. Here, deep clefts in the limestone, open to the sky, form a setting for the cult; the reliefs (relief) are carved on the vertical faces of the rock. One of the recesses, or chambers, is decorated with a pageant of deities, some standing on their appropriate cult animal or identified by a hieroglyphic inscription. These figures are carved with only average proficiency, and some of the iconography is borrowed from the Hurrians, with whom the Hittite royal family had intermarried. The figures in the second, or inner, sanctuary, however, are carved with an artistry inspired by religious fervour. The figure of a young king (Tudhaliyas IV) in the protective embrace of a god is hardly less impressive than the symbolism of a huge dagger thrust into the rock before him. The rock reliefs of this period elsewhere in Anatolia—Sirkeli, Gâvur Kalesi, and Fraktin, for example—are mainly of archaeological interest. They are inferior in carving to contemporary reliefs and to those of the Iron Age, of which there is a fine example at İvriz Harabesi in the Taurus Mountains, showing a local ruler of the 8th century BC paying homage to a fertility god.

      Monuments such as that at İvriz Harabesi represent a curious aftermath of Hittite history. In about 1190 BC the empire was destroyed and the Hittites driven from their homeland on the Anatolian plateau by the Phrygians, but in the 10th–8th centuries they reappeared as part occupants of small city-states such as Milid (modern Arslantepe-Malatya), Samʾal (modern Zincirli (Zincirli Höyük)), and Carchemish, in the Taurus or north Syria, where they shared political authority with indigenous Aramaeans and other peoples. During this Syro-Hittite period, their art and architecture was of a hybrid and rather inferior character much influenced by Assyria, to which the Hittites frequently became subject, and also by Phoenicia and Egypt. Conspicuous in their buildings are the sculptured orthostats that line the bases of the walls, often of coarse, black basalt awkwardly alternating with white limestone. Columns are of wood, with bases and capitals of stone, and monolithic statues, more than life-size, are a common feature. Fortifications are still an important aspect of their cities. Those at Zincirli enclose a circular town, a half mile in diameter, with a high-walled citadel in the centre, containing a complex of palaces. Like all Syrian palaces, these incorporate one or more bit hilani units, consisting of a columned portico, a long reception room, with an adjoining staircase to the roof, and a varying number of retiring rooms (see art and architecture, Syro-Palestinian). A striking example of these bit hilani is the Kaparu Palace at Tall Ḥalaf (Ḥalaf, Tall), near the source of the Khābūr River. The almost barbaric array of sculpture shows the city to have been predominantly Aramaean.

      Eastern Anatolia during the 9th–8th centuries BC was occupied by the state of Urartu, at first a minor kingdom centred on Lake Van but later extended to include parts of what are now Armenia, Iranian Azerbaijan, and Kurdistan in northern Iraq. Entrenched in a mountainous country, well organized with provincial capitals and a network of small fortress cities, it resisted aggression from the Assyrians in the south. Urartian culture was based upon that of Mesopotamia, but some scholars consider its architecture to be superior to that of the Assyrians, for the monotonous mud-brick facades of the southern plains and valleys are here replaced by a pattern of crenellated stone towers and buttresses adapted to the natural beauty of a rocky landscape. The excavation of two fortress cities, Karmirblur and Arin Berd, in Armenia, together with many others in Anatolia itself, has also revealed some unique features of Urartian architecture, including a standard form of temple: a square, towerlike building anticipating the temple-towers of Achaemenian times in Persia.

      Urartu was renowned for its craftsmanship in bronze casting, examples of which reached Europe by way of Phrygia. Mural painting was practiced with some proficiency, but the drawing is weak, and the designs add little to the repertoire of Assyrian motifs, from which they are largely copied.

      Plans dating from the Phrygian occupation of the Anatolian plateau (c. 1200 BC) have been recovered of small, fortified towns overlying the ruins of older Hittite cities. The Phrygian capital was at Gordium on the Sakarya (Sangarius) River, where excavations have revealed public buildings of the megaron type and the bastions of an impressive city gate. The rock-cut monuments of this period, concentrated around a Phrygian cult centre to the southeast of Eskişehir, include the Midas Monument: a tomb chamber framed in a relief depicting the gabled facade of a building. Ornament suggested by the sculptor has been explained by the discovery at other Phrygian sites of architectural terra-cottas: glazed tiles or panels, with human and animal figures. The contents of a royal tumulus (barrow) (an artificial hillock or mound over a grave) burial at Gordium testify to the competence of Phrygian craftsmanship in other materials, including glass.

Seton H.F. Lloyd

Additional Reading
General works on ancient Middle Eastern arts include Henri Frankfort, The Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient (1954, reissued 1995), a full critical study by an eminent scholar, now somewhat outdated; H.A. Groenewegen-Frankfort, Arrest and Movement: An Essay on Space and Time in the Representational Art of the Ancient Near East (1951, reprinted 1987), a detailed study of aesthetic values and symbolic abstractions; and Seton Lloyd, The Art of the Ancient Near East (1961), a well-illustrated survey for the general reader.Ekrem Akurgal, The Art of the Hittites (1962; originally published in German, 1961), is the best illustrated book on the subject of Anatolian arts. Other works of interest include Maurice Vieyra, Hittite Art, 2300–750 BC (1955); Maurits Nanning van Loon, Urartian Art (1966); and B.B. Piotrovskii, Urartu: The Kingdom of Van and Its Art (1967; originally published in Russian, 1962).Seton H.F. Lloyd Ed.

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Universalium. 2010.

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