Amphissa


Amphissa

Greece
Modern Greek  Ámfissa  

      agricultural centre, chief town of the eparkhía (eparchy) of Parnassus (Parnassós), capital of the nomós (department) of Fokís ( Phocis), central Greece, at the northwestern limit of the fertile Crisaean plain between the Gióna Mountains and the Parnassus massif. The economy includes trade in wheat, livestock, and particularly olives grown on the Crisaean plain. Bauxite is mined southeast of Amphissa and trucked to an aluminum-reduction plant at neighbouring Antikyra on an inlet of the Gulf of Corinth.

      During the European Middle Ages, Itéa, the ancient Chaleion, supplanted the 6th-century-BC port of Cyrrha (Kírra), situated just southeast of Itéa. On Amphissa's acropolis sits a ruined Franco-Catalan fortress supported by ancient foundations. The town is the seat of a metropolitan bishop of the Orthodox Church of Greece.

      Close to Delphi, ancient Amphissa was the capital of Ozolian (western) Locris. The ruined acropolis of the modern tiered town dates apparently from about the 5th century BC, or late Archaic period. The city provoked the Fourth Sacred War when it was denounced (339 BC) for the impiety of cultivating the sacred wooded plain of Crisa, still drained by the stream Pleistus. The following year it was destroyed by Philip II of Macedonia, who undertook the punitive mission on behalf of the Council of the Delphic Amphictyony (a league of Greek states), a task that also gave him an excuse to tighten his control on other Greek cities, leading to their permanent loss of independence after the Battle of Cheronaea (338 BC). The rebuilt city joined the Aetolian League, remaining a member until 167 BC, when it was forced to secede by Roman conquest. The 2nd-century-AD Greek traveler Pausanias reported that Amphissa had a temple to Athena with a very early statue of the goddess. Inscriptions concerning repairs on the city's aqueduct indicate that it remained active through the late Roman period.

      Destroyed by the Bulgars about the 10th century, Amphissa was rebuilt by the Franks and became known as Sálona. It was held by the Catalans (1311–35), passing then to Count Alphonse Frederick of Aragon, whose family held it until its fall to the Turks in 1394. Amphissa became part of Greece when it won its independence from Turkey in 1829. Pop. (2001) 6,946.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Amphissa — (a. Geogr.), Stadt der Ozolischen Lokrer, genannt nach Amphissa, der Tochter des Makareus u. der Geliebten des Apollo, die hier begraben war. Hier ward den Dioskuren (Anakes) ein Fest gefeiert. Die Stadt ward durch Philipos von Macedonien 340 v.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Amphissa — AMPHISSA, æ, Græc. Ἄμφισσα, ης, (⇒ Tab. XXV.) des Macareus Tochter, und Enkelinn des Aeolus, welche von dem Apollo geliebet wurde, und hernachmals der Stadt Amphissa in Phocis den Namen gegeben hat, woselbst denn auch unter andern ihr Grabmaal zu …   Gründliches mythologisches Lexikon

  • Amphissa — Amphissa, im Altertum Hauptstadt der ozolischen Lokrer, nordwestlich von Delphi. Weil es ein zum delphischen Tempel gehöriges Gebiet bebaut hatte, wurde es von Äschines beim Amphiktyonengericht angeklagt und von diesem ein sogen. Heiliger Krieg… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Amphissa — Amphissa, Stadt der ozolischen Lokrer in Griechenland, 339 v. Chr. von Philipp II. von Mazedonien zerstört, aber bald wiederhergestellt; jetzt Salona …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Amphissa — Amphissa, Stadt der ozol. Lokrer, 340 v. Chr. von Philipp von Macedonien in einem hl. Kriege auf Geheiß der Amphiktyonen zerstört, weil die Bürger Tempelland gepflügt hatten; blühte unter den Römern wieder auf; in der Nähe das heutige Salona …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Amphissa — 38° 32′ 00″ N 22° 22′ 00″ E / 38.533333, 22.366667 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • AMPHISSA — I. AMPHISSA Magnae Graeciae oppid. in ora Calabriae ulterioris, inter Locros et Caulonam 8. mill. pasl. apud ostia Sagrae fluv. Hodie La Rocella dicitur, Gabr. Barriô auctore. Principatus titulô gaudet, habetque Castrum munitum, ad mare Ionium.… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Amphissa — Ạmphissa,   Hauptstadt des Verwaltungsbezirks (Nomos) Phokis in Mittelgriechenland, 7 200 Einwohner; Sitz eines orthodoxen Bischofs;   Wirtschaft:   Zentrum des Olivenanbaus der Region; Bauxitgruben.   Geschichte:   Philipp II. von Makedonien …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Amphissa — Gemeinde Amfissa Δήμος Αμφίσσης DEC …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Microvoluta amphissa — Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Mollusca Class …   Wikipedia