acid halide


acid halide

      neutral compound that reacts with water to produce an acid and a hydrogen halide. Acid halides are ordinarily derived from acids or their salts by replacement of hydroxyl groups by halogen atoms. The most important organic acid halides are the chlorides derived from carboxylic acids and from sulfonic acids. The carboxylic acid chlorides, called acyl halides, are generally more reactive than the sulfonic acid chlorides, called sulfonyl chlorides.

      The acyl halides are highly reactive substances used primarily in organic syntheses to introduce the acyl group. They react with water, ammonia, and alcohols to give carboxylic acids, amides, and esters, respectively.

      Most acyl halides are liquids insoluble in water. They have sharp odours and irritate the mucous membranes. Sulfonyl chlorides (RSO2Cl) react with ammonia to form sulfonamides, including the sulfa drugs.

      Common halides of inorganic acids include chlorosulfuric acid (ClSO3H; formerly called chlorosulfonic acid) and sulfuryl chloride (SO2Cl2), corresponding to the replacement of one or both hydroxyl groups of sulfuric acid, H2SO4 or SO2(OH)2; thionyl chloride (SOCl2), the chloride of sulfurous acid; phosphorus trichloride (PCl3), the chloride of phosphorous acid; and phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3, also called phosphoryl chloride), the chloride of phosphoric acid.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Acid anhydride — An acid anhydride is an organic compound that has two acyl groups bound to the same oxygen atom.GoldBookRef|title=acid anhydrides|url=http://goldbook.iupac.org/A00072.html] Most commonly, the acyl groups are derived from the same carboxylic acid …   Wikipedia

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  • carboxylic acid — Chem. any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl groups. [1900 05; CARBOXYL + IC] * * * Any organic compound with the general chemical formula ―COOH in which a carbon (C) atom is bonded to an oxygen (O) atom by a double bond to make a… …   Universalium

  • Acyl halide — An acyl halide (also known as an acid halide) is a chemical compound derived from an oxoacid [http://goldbook.iupac.org/A00123.html] by replacing a hydroxyl group with a halide group.GoldBookRef|title=acyl… …   Wikipedia

  • acyl halide — noun organic compounds containing the group COX where X is a halogen atom • Syn: ↑acid halide • Hypernyms: ↑organic compound • Hyponyms: ↑acetyl chloride, ↑ethanoyl chloride …   Useful english dictionary

  • Carboxylic acid — Structure of a carboxylic acid Carboxylate ion …   Wikipedia

  • Sulfonic acid — General structure of sulfonic acid. R can also be equal to H. Sulfonic acid (or sulphonic acid) usually refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula RS(=O)2–OH, where R is an alkyl or aryl.[1] The formal part …   Wikipedia